World Library  



Mathematics (179 Books)


The category of mathematics are works on the abstract study of subjects encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and more; it has no generally accepted definition.

 
  • Cover Image

Collected Papers, Vol. 3

By: Florentin Smarandache

This representation is closer to the human mind reasoning. It characterizes/ catches the imprecision of knowledge or linguistic inexactitude received by various observers (that's why T, I, F are subsets - not necessarily single-clements), Uncertainty due to incomplete knowledge or acquisition errors or stochasticity (that's why the subset I exists), and vagueness due to lack of clear contours or limits (that's why T, I, Fare subsets and I exists; in particular for the a...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Collected Papers, Vol. 2

By: Florentin Smarandache

Abstract. The goal of this paper is to experiment new math concepts and theories, especially if they run counter to the classical ones. To prove that contradiction is not a catastrophe, and to learn to handle it in an (un)usual way. To transform the apparently unscientific ideas into scientific ones, and to develop their study (The Theory of Imperfections). And finally, to interconnect opposite (and not only) human fields of knowledge into a.s-heterogeneous-as-possib...

The "Paradoxist Mathematics" may be understood as Experimental Mathematics, NonMathematics, or even Anti-Mathematics: not in a nihilistic way, but in positive one. The truly innovative researchers will banish the old concepts in oder of check, by heuristic processes, some new ones: their opposites. Don't simply follow the crowd, and don't accept to be manipulated by any (political, economical, social, even scientific, or artistic, cultural, etc.) media! Learn to conrad...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Collected Papers, Vol. 1

By: Florentin Smarandache

In this paper we defme a function L with will allowus to generalize (separately or simultaneously) some theorems from Numbers Theory obtained by Wilson, Fermat, Euler, Gauss, Lagrange, Leibnitz, Moser, Sierpinski. (Some papers not included in the volume were confiscated by the Secret Police in September 1988, when the author left Romania. He spent 19 months in a Turkish political refugee camp, and emigrated to the United Stales in March 1990. Despite efforts by his fri...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Applications of Bimatrices to Some Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Models

By: Florentin Smarandache

Graphs and matrices play a vital role in the analysis and study of several of the real world problems which are based only on unsupervised data. The fuzzy and neutrosophic tools like fuzzy cognitive maps invented by Kosko and neutrosophic cognitive maps introduced by us help in the analysis of such real world problems and they happen to be mathematical tools which can give the hidden pattern of the problem under investigation. This book, in order to generalize the two ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Introduction to Bimetrics

By: Florentin Smarandache

Matrix theory has been one of the most utilised concepts in fuzzy models and neutrosophic models. From solving equations to characterising linear transformations or linear operators, matrices are used. Matrices find their applications in several real models. In fact it is not an exaggeration if one says that matrix theory and linear algebra (i.e. vector spaces) form an inseparable component of each other. The study of bialgebraic structures led to the invention of n...

Matrices provide a very powerful tool for dealing with linear models. Bimatrices which we are going to define in this chapter are still a powerful and an advanced tool which can handle over one linear model at a time. Bimatrices will be useful when time bound comparisons are needed in the analysis of the model.

Read More
  • Cover Image

Introduction to Linear Bialgebra

By: Florentin Smarandache

The algebraic structure, linear algebra happens to be one of the subjects which yields itself to applications to several fields like coding or communication theory, Markov chains, representation of groups and graphs, Leontief economic models and so on. This book has for the first time, introduced a new algebraic structure called linear bialgebra, which is also a very powerful algebraic tool that can yield itself to applications. With the recent introduction of bimatric...

In this section we give the definition of linear algebra and just state the few important theorems like Cayley Hamilton theorem, Cyclic Decomposition Theorem, Generalized Cayley Hamilton Theorem and give some properties about linear algebra.

Read More
  • Cover Image

Asupra Unor Noi Functii in Teoria Numerelor

By: Florentin Smarandache

Performantele matematicii actuale,ca si descoperirile din viitor isi au,desigur, inceputul in cea mai veche si mai aproape de filozofie ramura a matematicii, in teoria numerelor. Matematicienii din toate timpurile au fost, sunt si vor fi atrasi de frumusetea si varietatea problemelor specifice acestei ramuri a matematicii. Regina a matematicii, care la randul ei este regina a stiintelor, dupa cum spunea Gauss, teoria numerelor straluceste cu lumina si atractiile ei, fa...

Read More
  • Cover Image

On Some of Smarandache's Problems

By: Krassimir T. Atanassov

In 1996 the author wrote reviews for "Zentralblatt fUr Mathematik" for books [11 and [21 and this was him first contact of with the Smarandache's problems. In [1] Florentin Smarandache formulated 105 unsolved problems, while in [21 C. Dumitrescu and V. Seleacu formulated 140 unsolved problems. The second book contains almost all problems from [11, but now everyone problem has unique number and by this reason the author will use the numeration of the problems from [2]...

Read More
  • Cover Image

An Introduction to the Smarandache Function

By: Charles Ashbacher

The creation of a book is an act that requires several preconditions. I) An interesting and worthwhile subject; 2) A fair, yet demanding editor.; 3) Someone willing to put the words on paper. Given the existence of these three items, the leap to making the book a good one becomes the responsibility of the author. The Smarandache function is simultaneously a logical extension to earlier functions in number theory as well as a key to many future paths of exploration. As...

As one of the oldest of mathematical disciplines, the roots of number theory extend back into antiquity. Problems are often easy to state, but extremely difficult to solve. Which is the origin of much of their charm. All mathematicians, amateurs and professionals alike, have a soft spot in their hearts for the "purity" of the integers. When "Fermat's Last Theorem" was finally proven after centuries of effort, the result was discussed on many major news shows in the U...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Pluckings from the Tree of Smarandache Sequences and Functions

By: Charles Ashbacher

In writing a book, one encounters and overcomes many obstacles. Not the least of which is the occasional case of writer’s block. This is especially true in mathematics where sometimes the answer is currently and may for all time be unknown. There is nothing worse than writing yourself into a corner where your only exit is to build a door by solving unsolved problems. In any case, it is my hope that you will read this volume and come away thinking that I have overcome eno...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Collection of Problems on Smarandache Notions

By: Charles Ashbacher

A Smarandache notion is an element of an ill-defined set, sometimes being almost an accident oflabeling. However, that takes nothing away from the interest and excitement that can be generated by exploring the consequences of such a problem It is a well-known cliche among writers that the best novels are those where the author does not know what is going to happen until that point in the story is actually reached. That statement also holds for some of these problems. ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Smarandache Sequences, Stereograms and Series

By: Charles Ashbacher

F. Smarandache has defined many sequences of integers formed by concatenating the positive integers in specific ways. A question that is often asked about most of these sequences concerns the number of primes in the sequence. As Paul Erdos pointed out, determining how many primes are in sequences of this type is a problem that the current state of mathematical knowledge is unprepared to solve. In general, the sequences grow rather fast, so after a very short time, t...

Using the bases from three through nine to form new sequences, we can then ask the same question regarding the number of primes in the sequence. That appears to be a question just as difficult as the one for base ten numbers, and is summarized in the following statement.

Read More
  • Cover Image

Algebra-Russian

By: Florentin Smarandache

This is Smarandache's Russian translation from Romanian on Algebra.

Read More
  • Cover Image

Algebra-Romanian

By: Florentin Smarandache

Prezenta lucrare contine exercitii §i probleme de algebra, grupate pe capitole, pentru clasele superioare de licee §i §coli medii de cultura generala. Scopul ei este pregatirea matematica a elevilor din liceele de toate categoriile §i va fi utila in lucrul de sine statator. De asemenea, lucrarea poate fi folosita pentru lucrul extra§colar, deoarece cititorul va gasi in ea teoreme §i for mule importante, notiuni §i definitii de baza care nu intotdeauna sunt incluse in manualele §colare.

Teoria axiomatica a multimilor este foarte dificila pentru a fi expusa la un nivel elementar, de aceea, intuitiv, prin multime vom in1elege o colec1ie de obiecte pe care Ie vom numi elemente sau puncte ale acestei mul1imi. 0 mul1ime este definita daca sunt date elementele sale sau daca se da 0 proprietate pe care 0 au toate elementele sale, proprietate care Ie deosebe§te de elementele altei mul1imi. Ulteror mul1imile Ie vom nota cu majuscule: A, B, C, .. . , X, Y, ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Smarandache Semigroups

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

The main motivation and desire for writing this book, is the direct appreciation and attraction towards the Smarandache notions in general and Smarandache algebraic structures in particular. The Smarandache semigroups exhibit properties of both a group and a semigroup simultaneously. This book is a piece of work on Smarandache semigroups and assumes the reader to have a good background on group theory; we give some recollection about groups and some of its properties just for quick reference.

Read More
  • Cover Image

Research on Smarandache Problems in Number Theory

By: Zhang Wenpeg, Editor

Number theory is an ancient subject, but we still cannot answer many simplest and most natural questions about the integers. Some old problems have been solved, but more arise. All the research for these ancient or new problems implicated and are still promoting the development of number theory and mathematics.

Read More
  • Cover Image

Research on Smarandache Problems in Number Theory (Volume Ii)

By: Zhang Wenpeg, Li Junzhuang, Liu Duanses

For any positive integer n, let (n) be the Euler function, and am(n) denotes the Smarandache m-th power residues function of n. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the number of the solutions of the equation (n) = am(n), and give all solutions for this equation.

Read More
  • Cover Image

Fixing Global Finance

By: Kavaljit Singh

The financial crisis which erupted in mid-2007 has been widely viewed as the most serious financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The crisis which originated in developed countries quickly spread to developing countries and the rest of the world. The turbulence in financial systems was followed by a significant reduction in real economic activity throughout the world. The crisis has highlighted that financial markets are inherently unstable and market f...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Cyclopedia of Economics

By: Sam Vaknin

Cyclopedia of issues in economics analyzed through the prism of the economies of countries in transition, emerging markets, and developing countries.

Read More
  • Cover Image

Capitalistic Musings

By: Sam Vaknin

Critical analysis of the foundations and tenets of capitalism and of the dismal science - economics.

Read More
 
5
|
6
|
7
|
8
|
9
Records: 161 - 179 of 179 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.