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Appendix 1 Testimony before the U. S. Commission on Ocean Policy : Synthesis Indexed by Policy Topic

By National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Book Id: WPLBN0000661323
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.41 MB.
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: Appendix 1 Testimony before the U. S. Commission on Ocean Policy : Synthesis Indexed by Policy Topic  
Author: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Science., Ecology & environment, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (U.S.)
Collections: National Oceanographic Data Center
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Government Reference Publication

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And Atmospheric Administration, N. O. (n.d.). Appendix 1 Testimony before the U. S. Commission on Ocean Policy : Synthesis Indexed by Policy Topic. Retrieved from http://www.worldpubliclibrary.org/


Excerpt
Excerpt: LIVING MARINE RESOURCES. Hawaii has been moving forward with sustainable use of its ocean space for aquaculture; issued first commercial lease in State waters for open ocean project. (Colom-Agaran) Company concept is to apply modern aquaculture and bioprocess techniques, together with knowledge of life cycles of marine invertebrates and marine algae, to high-yield culture for eventual extraction of bioactive chemical constituents. Almost insurmountable hurdles of local, state, federal permitting and obtaining seed funding. (Mendola) Pollution, particularly waste, from aquaculture a problem. (Ford) Aquaculture enhancement and ?fish for food? have difficulties with acceptance; local communities, environmental organizations, etc. (Gutting) Aquaculture causes variety of problems: habitat loss, degraded water quality, movement of alien species and diseases. (Safina) NOAA, USDA, EPA, USFWS, USDA have roles, sometimes contradictory, confusing and counterproductive. Disappointed with NMFS SE hot-cold efforts; encouraged by NOAA OAR Fiscal Year 2001 national competition for innovative research: multi-investigator, multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional, multi-state. (Haddad) If aquaculture ceased using fish meal in feeds tomorrow, there would be no impact on landings of fish to make fish meal because other agriculture production sectors would buy it all. (Haddad) Permit Requirements: 1) There was no consistency in support for the growth of this new industry; 2) Those interested in an aquaculture venture had to fight through a maze of permit requirements. (Chew) Mistakes Made: In establishing early aquaculture operations there were major losses of investments; the lending institutions shied away from making such loans for many years. (Chew) The public-at-large should be better educated about the importance of aquaculture worldwide and its impact on the U.S. economy. (Chew) Regulations on effluents from aquaculture facilities are critical issues. (Chew) Competition for space in marine and freshwater habitats creates conflict between aquaculture and shoreline property owners, traditional fishermen, and aquatic farmers. (Chew) Those in the scientific field should recognize that aquaculture is a tool for replenishing depleted wild stocks of fish. (Chew) Aquaculture can produce more food per unit area at a lower environmental cost than nearly any other form of food production. (Chew) The NMFS is good for marine fish culture, and for enhancement, but they have not been effective when it comes to aquaculture. (Chew) It is difficult to give the approximate level of research funding that is expended in other countries, but other country governments subsidize aquaculture.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS: APPENDIX I Topic: Living Marine Resources Aquaculture............................................................................................................................................1 Wild Resources ......................................................................................................................................9 Biodiversity..........................................................................................................................................10 Status of Managed Species...................................................................................................................11 Requirements of Unmanaged Resources..............................................................................................15 Sufficiency of Science and Information...............................................................................................23 Types of Management Structures and Tools.........................................................................................31 Ocean Use Planning and Ecological Zonation .....................................................................................58 Conflicting Mandates ...........................................................................................................................66 Effective Enforcement ..........................................................................................................................69 Other ....................................................................................................................................................71 Topic: Pollution and Water Quality Ocean Pollution Sources; Point and Nonpoint .....................................................................................73 Monitoring ...........................................................................................................................................88 Land-Sea-Air Interface .........................................................................................................................89 Topic: Governance Scope of Ocean Governance Authorities..............................................................................................93 Federal Government?s Response to Ocean Policy Issues .....................................................................97 Improved Coordination......................................................................................................................105 Alternative Governance Regimes and Models ...................................................................................110 Roles in Ocean Governance ...............................................................................................................123 Topic: Coastal Zone Management Roles of Government in Managing Coasts - Includes CZMA Issues ................................................129 Increasing Population and Development Pressures............................................................................136 Use of Science and Technology..........................................................................................................140 Citizen Involvement...........................................................................................................................142 Economic Contributions of Ocean and Coastal Resources................................................................143

 

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