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The Renaissance of Science: The Story of the Atom, Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics : Revised 9th Edition

By Martini, Albert

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Book Id: WPLBN0100002501
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
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Reproduction Date: 9/1/2016

Title: The Renaissance of Science: The Story of the Atom, Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics : Revised 9th Edition  
Author: Martini, Albert
Volume: Revised 9th Edition
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science
Collections: Authors Community, Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2016
Publisher: Self-published
Member Page: Albert Martini

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APA MLA Chicago

Martini, A. (2016). The Renaissance of Science: The Story of the Atom, Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics : Revised 9th Edition. Retrieved from http://www.worldpubliclibrary.org/


Description
This book presents the fundamental scientific developments in mathematics, physics and astronomy from the Classic Greek Era to the present time. It discusses and illustrates the 2,000-year history in the development of the great ideas, concepts and laws that revolutionized our scientific world. It also emphasizes how the new scientific concepts contributed to the logical development of the various sciences. It presents the development of the atomic theory from the Classic Greek Era to John Dalton’s atomic model and into the 20th century with the new quantized atomic model developed by Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr and Max Planck. In the area of mathematics, it discusses the development of the theory of numbers and the various mathematical sciences. In the area of astronomy, it presents the development of astronomy and the various theories on the origin of our universe. In the area of physics, it discuses the development of the physical sciences with emphasis on the fundamental concepts, the mechanical world of Sir Isaac Newton, the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein and the quantum world of the atom from Max Planck to Werner Heisenberg.

Summary
This is a scientific and historical book in the areas of mathematics, physics and astronomy, which presents the lives and accomplishments of over 200 scientists and how their ideas contributed to the development of our scientific world. The scientific accomplishments are presented chronologically and using over 200 pictures and diagrams to illustrate their logical development. The concepts in mathematics, physics and astronomy are frequently interrelated to justify their usefulness along the centuries of development. This book is essentially a labor of love on the presentation of the magnificent scientists and their fabulous accomplishments responsible for the development of our modern scientific world.

Excerpt
OUR PRODIGIOUS ATOM AND ITS MEANING THE INFINITELY SMALL ATOM IS THE INFINITELY LARGE SOURCE OF INFORMATION AND WISDOM THE ATOM REPRESENTS THE PRODIGIOUS AND SUPERLATIVE UNIFIED CONCEPT OF OUR UNIVERSE THE ATOM IS THE PERFECT NATURAL MACHINE THAT FUNCTIONS WITH MAGNIFICENT BALANCE AND HARMONY AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT THE ATOM IS A FABULOUS CHUNK OF MATTER-ENERGY CONTINUUM WITH A PRODIGIOUS SELF-SUSTAINING PERPETUAL MOTION THE ATOM IS THE EMBODIMENT OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM AND IT REPRESENTS A PIECE OF THE SUN AND LIFE ITSELF THE ATOM IS THE UNIVERSAL BUILDING BLOCK OF OUR MATTER-ENERGY CONTINUUM THE ATOM IS THE FUNDAMENTAL AND BOUNDLESS SOURCE OF THE ENERGY THAT POWERS AND GUIDES OUR ENTIRE UNIVERSE E = MC2 ENERGY OF THE ATOM CALCULATED FROM THE PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW OR E = (ENERGY/ATOM)(ATOMS/UNIT MATTER)(TOTAL MATTER) = (ENERGY/ATOM)(6.022 X 1023 ATOMS/MOLE)(TOTAL N0 OF MOLES) ENERGY OF THE ATOM CALCULATED FROM THE CHEMISTRY POINT OF VIEW THE GREATEST FUNDAMENTAL INVENTIONS CREATED BY MOTHER NATURE THE ATOM AND ITS CAPACITY TO STORE AND RELEASE UNIVERSAL ENERGY BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES THE CELL AND ITS CAPACITY TO SUSTAIN INDEPENDENT LIFE BY MEANS OF UNIQUE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSFORM SOLAR (LIGHT) ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL AND FOOD ENERGY BY MEANS OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES LIGHT AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSPORT ENERGY AND CHANGE OUR UNIVERSE BY TRANSFORMING DARKNESS INTO LIGHTNESS THROUGH THE MIRACLE OF ILLUMINATION THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ITS CAPACITY TO PRODUCE THE DYNAMIC ELECTRIC CURRENT THAT ENERGIZES OUR LIVES AND POWERS OUR UNIVERSE THE ATMOSPHERE, OUR SOURCE OF CARBON DIOXIDE REQUIRED FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND OXYGEN REQUIRED FOR RESPIRATION THE OCEANS AND OTHER BODIES OF WATER AS THE BASIC SOURCE OF LIFE SUSTAINING WATER THE EARTH, OUR SOURCE OF MINERALS AND CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, WHICH SUSTAIN LIFE ON OUR PLANET AND THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF ALL OF NATURE’S INTUITIVE CREATIONS IS THE PROCESS OF UNIVERSAL TRANSFORMATION, WHERE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TRANSFORM MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME AND LIFE ITSELF

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS SOME IDEAS WITH UNIQUE SIGNIFICANCE.....................1 THE STORY OF THE ATOM MATHEMATICS, ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS ...............................77 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................77 THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENTS OF OUR UNIVERSE 84 MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME FROM A UNIFICATION POINT OF VIEW, THE BEHAVIOR OF OUR UNIVERSE IS DETERMINED BY HOW THE FOUR FORCES OF NATURE (GRAVITY, ELECTROMAGNETISM, THE WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE AND THE STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE) INTERACT WITH THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENTS OF OUR UNIVERSE, ENERGY, MATTER, SPACE AND TIME. OUR MIND AND ITS ADVENTURE INTO THE WORLD OF KNOWLEDGE ............................................................. 87 MATTER - ENERGY - SPACE - TIME ..................................................... 89 MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE AND TIME CONSTITUTE THE MAGNIFICENT FRAMEWORK & ESSENCE OF OUR UNIVERSE WHAT IS MATTER ? ................................................................................. 91 MATTER IS WHERE A VAST QUANTITY OF ENERGY IS STORED (E=MC2) MATTER IS WHERE THE GREAT SECRETS OF NATURE RESIDE WHAT IS ENERGY ?........................................................................... 93 ENERGY IS ACTIVITY, CHANGE AND MOTION IN PROGRESS. ENERGY IS THE MAGNIFICENT & DYNAMIC EXPRESSION OF MATTER. The FOUR FUNDAMENTAL FORCES IN NATURE ............................ .95 THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE , F = G !!!! .............................. 95 ! !! THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE (or Lorentz Force) ................... 96 THE WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE. RADIOACTIVITY. ............................ 97 XII THE STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE , E = MC2 .......................................... 97 WHAT ABOUT SPACE AND TIME ? ...................................................... 98 SPACE AND TIME CONSTITUTE THE UNIVERSAL FRAMEWORK AND THE 4-DIMENSIONAL FABRIC OF OUR UNIVERSE, WHICH MAY BE EXPONENTIALLY EXPANDING AS A NUMERICAL ASYMPTOTE WITH FANTASTICALLY QUANTIZED COSMIC QUALITIES., WHAT IS SPACE ? ...................................................................................... ..100 SPACE IS TIME IN MOTION, AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT. SPACE IS THE SUPERLATIVE FRAMEWORK OF OUR UNIVERSE, WHICH MAY BE EXPONENTIALLY EXPANDING AS A NUMERICAL ASYMPTOTE WITH FANTASTICALLY QUANTIZED COSMIC QUALITIES. THE COSMIC SPACE ................................................................................. ..102 THE COSMIC SPACE IS THE UNIVERSAL FRAMEWORK WHERE OUR COSMIC DRAMA OCCURS BY VIRTUE OF OUR FANTASTIC NATURAL LAWS. NEWTON’S SPACE ..................................................................................... ..104 IS THE STABLE, PASSIVE AND ETERNAL SPACE WHERE MOTION AND CHANGES OCCUR FOLLOWING OUR NATURAL LAWS. EINSTEIN’S SPACE .................................................................................... ..105 IS THE DYNAMIC, INTERACTIVE AND EXPANDING FOUR-DIMENSIONAL SPACE/TIME FABRIC OF OUR UNIVERSE. THE GRAVITATIONAL SPACE ............................................................... ..108 IS THE SPACE WHERE THE FORCE OF GRAVITY BECOMES THE PRODIGIOUS POWER THAT HOLDS TOGETHER OUR MAGNIFICENT UNIVERSE WITH A CELESTIAL LOVE, KINDNESS AND HARMONY, WHICH IS INFINITE, ETERNAL AND DIVINE. THE SUBATOMIC SPACE OR QUANTUM SPACE .............................. ..110 IS THE FANTASTIC SPACE FOUND WITHIN THE ATOM. THE EMPTY SPACE ................................................................................... ..111 THIS IS THE SPACE WHOSE DEFINITION HAS DEFIED OUR MOST BRILLIANT SCIENTIFIC MINDS AND THE MYSTERIOUS SPACE THAT CONTAINS THE MOST FABULOUS SECRETS OF OUR MAGNIFICENT UNIVERSE AS WELL AS ITS ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND DESTINY. XIII THE EMPTY SPACE WITHIN THE ATOM ........................................... ..115 WHAT IS TIME ? ........................................................................................ .118 TIME IS CREATION, EVOLUTION AND DESTINY IN MOTION. TIME MAY BE THE HIDDEN GENIE THAT KNOWS WHAT WE WILL NEVER LEARN ABOUT OUR ORIGIN, NATURE AND THE UNIVERSE TIME, WHICH STARTED WHEN THE UNIVERSE BEGAN IS A PRODIGIOUS ENTITY AN ABSTRACT ON THE MEANING OF TIME - REALITY OR ILLUSION........................................................................124 AN ABSTRACT ON THE “UNIVERSAL QUANTUM THEORY”...........126 WHAT IS QUANTUM MECHANICS ? ..................................................... ..127 WHAT IS THE STRING THEORY ? ........................................................ ..128 WHAT IS A BLACK HOLE AND A SINGULARITY ? ............................ ..131 UNIVERSE VS. MULTIVERSE ? ............................................................... ..132 SOME FOOD FOR THOUGHT...............................................................133 AN ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE ......................................................................134 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND MATHEMATICS ........................... ..140 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ ..140 MATHEMATIC IS SCIENTIFIC POETRY WRITTEN IN NUMBERS. MATHEMATICS IS THE MAGNIFICENT LANGUAGE OF THE SCIENCES, NATURE AND THE UNIVERSE. THE EARLY STORY OF THE ATOM AND MATHEMATICS ............. ..141 THE MATHEMATICS OF THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA ........................ ..143 PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND MATHEMATICIAN. ............................................................................ ..144 DEVELOPED THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM, a2 + b2 = c2 . EUCLID (325 - 270 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN .......................... ..144 XIV Developed GEOMETRY and wrote his book, “ELEMENTS”, which became a source of MATHEMATICAL INFORMATION until the RENAISSANCE ERA. ARCHIMEDES (287-212 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN..................................’’...145 ARCHIMEDES was regarded as the most brilliant of the GREEK SCIENTISTS, who discovered the PRINCIPLE OF BUOYANCY and the PRINCIPLE OF THE LEVER. APOLLONIUS (262 - 190 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN ............... ..145 Developed the concept of the CONIC SECTIONS. ERATOSTHENES (276 - 196 BC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ ..145 Calculated the CIRCUMFERENCE of the EARTH. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100 - 170 AD) - GREEK ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ ..146 Introduced the new mathematics of TRIGONOMETRY, an extension of GEOMETRY. THE MATHEMATICS OF THE MEDIEVAL AGE ................................. ..146 (5th - 14th CENTURIES) THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NUMBER THEORY AND MATHEMATICS ................................................................................ ..147 THE THEORY OF NUMBERS .................................................................. ..147 KINDS OF NUMBERS ................................................................................ ..147 THE KINDS OF NUMBERS THAT WE USE TODAY ........................... ..150 THE HIERARCHY OR ORDER OF MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS ..................................................... ..151 HOW DO WE USE NUMBERS ? ............................................................... ..152 XV HOW THE METRIC SYSTEM WORKS .................................................. ..154 The METRIC SYSTEM of measurements was introduced by JOSEPH LaGRANGE, PIERRE LaPLACE and ANTOINE LAVOISIER in 1793-1795. THE ORIGIN OF NUMBERS .................................................................256 THE BABYLONIANS .................................................................................. ..156 THE EGYPTIANS AND THEIR PYRAMIDS .......................................... ..156 THE MAYAN CIVILIZATION IN THE YUCATAN PENINSULA ........ ..157 THE ROMAN NUMERALS ........................................................................ ..157 THE ARABIC/HINDU NUMBERS AND OUR DECIMAL SYSTEM ... ..158 THE ORIGIN OF THE BRANCHES OF MATHEMATICS .................... ..159 THE ORIGIN OF ARITHMETIC ............................................................... ..159 THE ORIGIN OF GEOMETRY .................................................................. ..159 THE ORIGIN OF TRIGONOMETRY ....................................................... ..160 THE ORIGIN OF ALGEBRA ...................................................................... ..161 THE ORIGIN OF ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ............................................. ..161 THE ORIGIN OF CALCULUS .................................................................... ..162 THE PROPERTIES OF THE DIFFERENT MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES ................................................................... ..163 WHAT IS ARITHMETIC ? ........................................................................ ..164 WHAT IS GEOMETRY ? ............................................................................ ..164 WHAT IS TRIGONOMETRY ? ................................................................. ..165 WHAT IS ALGEBRA ? ............................................................................... ..166 WHAT IS ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ? ...................................................... ..166 WHAT IS CALCULUS ? .............................................................................. ..168 XVI THE MATHEMATICS OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA ......... ..169 (THE 15TH , 16TH and 17th CENTURIES) LEONARDO FIBONACCI (1170 - 1240) ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN ..................................................................... .170 Published (1202) his book, LIBER ABACI and introduced to Europe The METRIC SYSTEM or the NEW DECIMAL SYSTEM of measurements and the ARABIC/HINDU NUMBERS created by the HINDU mathematicians. NICCOLO TARTAGLIA (1499 - 1557) ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN ..................................................................... .171 GIROLAMO CARDANO (1501 - 1576) ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN ..................................................................... .173 First to recognize the value of NEGATIVE and IMAGINARY NUMBERS. FRANCISCUS VIETA (1540 - 1603) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN. .174 First (1591) to use LETTERS to represent UNKNOWNS in ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS. SIMON STEVINUS (1548 - 1620) BELGIAN-DUTCH MATHEMATICIAN ..................................................... .174 JOHN NAPIER (1550 - 1617) - SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN ......... .175 HENRY BRIGGS (1561 - 1630) - ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN ........ .176 Napier & Briggs introduced the EXPONENTIAL NUMBERS & LOGARITHMS. WILLIAM OUGHTRED (1574 - 1660) ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... .178 BLAISE PASCAL (1623 - 1662) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN ......... .179 Proposed (1654) his new THEORY of PROBABILITY together with PIERRE de FERMAT. Invented (1642) a CALCULATING MACHINE. THE MATHEMATICS OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION XVII DURING THE AGE OF REASON .............................................................. .181 The 17th-18th CENTURIES brought much of the MODERN MATHEMATICS that we use today. RENE DESCARTES (1596 - 1650) - FRENCH PHILOSOPHER AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ .182 Introduced (1637) the CARTESIAN COORDINATES, which led to the development of the new mathematics of ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. PIERRE DE FERMAT (1601 - 1665) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN. 184 Introduced the 3rd dimension system of the CARTESIAN COORDINATES and helped to develop ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. Was one of the proponents (1654) of the THEORY of PROBABILITY together with BLAISE PASCAL. SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) - ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .......................................................................................... 186 Created (1660’S) the new mathematics of CALCULUS, which became the mathematics of CHANGE and MOTION, and the MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK on which all sciences were formulated. Published (1687) his prodigious book, PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA, the greatest TREATISE ON MOTION. GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ (1646 - 1716) - GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER ................................................................................... 187 Created (1684) the new mathematics of CALCULUS, independently of NEWTON. LEONHARD EULER (1707 - 1783) - SWISS MATHEMATICIAN ...... 189 One of the greatest mathematicians of the 18th century, together with SIR ISAAC NEWTON and KARL GAUSS. DANIELLE BERNOULLI (1700 - 1782) - SWISS MATHEMATICIAN 191 MEMBER OF A FAMILY OF GREAT MATHEMATICIANS. JEAN D’ALEMBERT (1717 - 1783) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN .. 193 JOHANN HEINRICH LAMBERT (1728 - 1777) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... 193 XVIII JOSEPH LAGRANGE (1736 - 1813) - ITALIAN-FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER ................................................ 194 LAGRANGE, LAPLACE and LAVOISIER developed (1793-1795) the new METRIC SYSTEM of WEIGHTS and MEASURES. PIERRE LAPLACE (1749 - 1827) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER ................................................................................... 196 Was regarded as the “FRENCH NEWTON”. Wrote ( by 1820) a treatise on the THEORY of PROBABILITY and helped develop MODERN MATHEMATICS. ADRIEN MARIE LEGENDRE (1752 - 1833) FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN ..................................................................... 197 Rewrote EUCLID’S textbook on geometry, “ELEMENTS” into a simpler form. JEAN BAPTISTE FOURIER (1768 - 1830) FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN ..................................................................... 198 Proposed (1807) his famous “FOURIER’S THEOREM” on PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS of HARMONIC MOTIONS, expressed in TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS. THE MATHEMATICS OF THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES ............ 199 With the advent of the 19th and 20th CENTURIES, MODERN MATHEMATICS became a science of its own, capable of handling the NEW RELATIVISTIC PHYSICS of ALBERT EINSTEIN , the NEW PHYSICS of QUANTUM MECHANICS and the NEW PHYSICS of the ELECTRONIC WORLD. JOHANN KARL GAUSS (1777 - 1855) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... 201 Was called the PRINCE of MATHEMATICS, who contributed significantly to the various branches of mathematics. Proved (1799) his FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM of ALGEBRA. Started the new mathematics of NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY, which helped EINSTEIN in his famous journey on RELATIVITY. NIKOLAI LOBACHEVSKI (1792 - 1856) RUSSIAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... 203 XIX CREATED (1829) his NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY, which EXPANDED the DOMAIN of MATHEMATICS into the world of MODERN PHYSICS. JANOS BOLYAI (1802 - 1860) - HUNGARIAN MATHEMATICIAN ... 206 Developed (1823) his NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY. GEORG FRIEDRICH RIEMANN (1826 - 1866) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... 207 Developed (1854) his NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY, which was different from that of LOBACHEVSKI and BOLYAI. CHRISTIAN FELIX KLEIN (1849 - 1925), GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... 208 SYSTEMATIZED (late 1800’S) NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY which brought it into the MAINSTREAM OF MATHEMATICAL THINKING. NIELS HENRIK ABEL (1802 - 1829) NORWEGIAN MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................ 211 Extended the BINOMIAL THEOREM that had been developed by SIR ISAAC NEWTON and LEONHARD EULER. CARL GUSTAV JACOBI (1804 - 1851) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... 211 Developed (early 1800’S) his THEORY of ELLIPTICAL FUNCTIONS. KARL T. WEIERSTRASS (1815 - 1897) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... 212 SIR WILLIAM R. HAMILTON (1805 - 1865) IRISH MATHEMATICIAN .......................................................................... 213 . Created (mid 1800’S) the new field of NON-COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA, which became useful in the development of QUANTUM MECHANICS in the 20th century. CHARLES HERMITE (1822 - 1901)- FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN .. 214 Solved EQUATIONS of the 5TH DEGREE using ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. XX GEORG CANTOR (1845 - 1918) - GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER ................................................................................... 216 Invented the SET THEORY that became fundamental in mathematics. CARL L. VON LINDEMANN (1852 - 1939) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................................... 217 JULES HENRI POINCARE (1854 - 1912) FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND THEORETICAL PHYSICIST ........... 218 Has been regarded as one of the last UNIVERSAL MATHEMATICIAN. One of the founders of the new field of TOPOLOGY and creator of a new branch of mathematics in the area of DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. Worked (1893) on the SYNCHRONIZATION of TIME AROUND THE WORLD. Was one of the first to recognize the importance of EINSTEIN’S THEORY of RELATIVITY. DAVID HILBERT (1862 - 1943) - GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN ...... 221 One of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and 20th centuries. Published (1899) his book “FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRY” where he proposed a FORMAL SET of AXIOMS to improve the traditional AXIOMS by EUCLID. This was his contribution to the AXIOMATIZATION of GEOMETRY HERMANN MINKOWSKI (1864 - 1909) RUSSIAN-GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN .................................................. 223 Proposed (1907) his SPACE-TIME FABRIC of the UNIVERSE. Here, TIME became the 4th dimension of space, in addition to the three SPATIAL DIMENSIONS (LENGTH, WIDTH and HEIGHT). He was among the first to recognize the value of EINSTEIN’S THEORY of RELATIVITY. BERTRAND A. RUSSELL (1872 - 1970) ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER .............................. 226 A NOBEL LAUREATE PHILOSOPHER, LOGICIAN and MATHEMATICIAN. In collaboration with ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD, RUSSELL published (1913) their famous book, PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA, to present MATHEMATICS as an EXACT SCIENCE. This was also considered one of the most important books on MATHEMATICAL LOGIC in the 20th century. ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD (1861 - 1947) XXI ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER .............................. 228 Wrote (1890’s) his ‘TREATISE ON UNIVERSAL ALGEBRA”. Collaborated with Bertrand Russell (1900’s) to write “PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA”. Wrote (1925) his book “SCIENCE AND THE MODERN WORLD. And latter on his book “PROCESS AND REALITY”. Published (1929) “THE AIMS OF EDUCATION & OTHER ESSAYS” KURT FRIEDRICH GODEL (1906 - 1978) AUSTRIAN-AMERICAN MATHEMATICIAN ........................................... 230 Defined CLASSICAL LOGIC, INTUITIONAL LOGIC and MODAL LOGIC. Published (1931) his “INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM” showing that no one could find a set of AXIOMS that was sufficient to explain all mathematics. NORBERT WIENER (1894 - 1964) AMERICAN MATHEMATICIAN ................................................................ 233 Regarded as the FOUNDER of CYBERNETICS. Published (1948) his book “CYBERNETICS”. Here he indicated that the basic theories in CYBERNETICS applied equally well to MAN-MADE COMPUTERS, as well as to the HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM. JOHN VON NEUMANN (1903 - 1957) HUNGARIAN-AMERICAN MATHEMATICIAN ....................................... 234 Contributed (1940’S) to the mathematics used in QUANTUM MECHANICS, GAME THEORY, COMPUTER SCIENCE and STATISTICS. He was part of the MANHATTAN PROJECT and the creation of the ATOMIC BOMB under the leadership of ROBERT OPPENHEIMER. CLOSING COMMENTS ON THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND MATHEMATICS ............................................................................... 236 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND ASTRONOMY ................................ 240 THIS IS THE WORLD OF THE FANTASTIC & THE MYSTERIOUS INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 240 THE ASTRONOMY OF THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA ............................ 243 ASTRONOMY WAS IN THE HANDS OF GREEK PHILOSOPHERS WHO XXII STUDIED THE NIGHT SKY TO CREATE THEIR CALENDARS AND TO UNVEIL THE SECRETS OF THEIR GODS AND THE COSMOS. ARISTARCHUS (310 - 230 BC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER ................... 244 Proposed the first HELIOCENTRIC THEORY where the SUN was the CENTER of our SOLAR SYSTEM. HIPPARCHUS (190 - 120 BC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER ..................... 246 CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100 - 170 AD) - GREEK ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ 246 Proposed the first GEOCENTRIC THEORY where the EARTH was the CENTER of our SOLAR SYSTEM. THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA & MODERN ASTRONOMY ...... 248 THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA MARKED THE BEGINNING OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF TELESCOPIC ASTRONOMY; WHICH REVOLUTIONIZED OUR CONCEPTION OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM AND OUR COSMOS. NICOLAS COPERNICUS (1473 - 1543) - POLISH ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ 249 Proposed (1543) his MODERN HELIOCENTRIC THEORY of our SOLAR SYSTEM, which started the SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION of the ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA.. NICHOLAS OF CUSA (1401 - 1464) - GERMAN PHILOSOPHER AND ASTRONOMER ................................................................................... 252 TYCHO BRAHE (1546 - 1601) - DANISH ASTRONOMER. ................. 253 Collected much astronomic information, which became very useful to JOHANN KEPLER with his fantastic studies on our SOLAR SYSTEM. JOHANN KEPLER (1571 - 1630) - GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER ................................................................................... 255 Proposed ( early 1600’s) his THREE LAWS of PLANETARY MOTION and his ELLIPTICAL PLANETARY ORBITS around the SUN, which revolutionized the WORLD of ASTRONOMY. KEPLER’S THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION ........................ 258 XXIII GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) - ITALIAN ASTRONOMER, PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN ....................................................... 261 The FOUNDER of TELESCOPIC ASTRONOMY, MODERN PHYSICS, the LAWS OF FALLING BODIES & their MATHEMATICAL CHARACTERIZATION, and The SCIENTIFIC METHOD of RESEARCH. Discovered (1581) the PRINCIPLE of the PENDULUM. Was the first to use the TELESCOPE (early 1600’S) to reveal and expand the GRANDEUR of our COSMOS. Supported COPERNICUS’ HELIOCENTRIC THEORY of our SOLAR SYSTEM. SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) - ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .......................................................................................... 265 The most intuitive and prodigious scientist of the 17th century. Discovered ( 1660’S) our MAGNIFICENT FORCE OF GRAVITY., which was one of the most fantastic accomplishments in the world of science. Characterized (1665- 1666 ) the NATURE of LIGHT. Created (1660’S) the new MATHEMATICS of CALCULUS as the MATHEMATICS of CHANGE and MOTION. Created (1660’s) his THREE LAWS of MOTION. Published (1687) his magnificent book, PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA, the GREATEST TREATISE on MOTION. NEWTON’S SCHOOL YEARS AND BACK TO HIS RURAL HOME ... 266 SOMEOFNEWTON’SFANTASTICACCOMPLISHMENTS ..............266 NEWTON INVENTED HIS REFLECTING TELESCOPE ...................... 266 NEWTON CHARACTERIZED THE TRUE NATURE OF LIGHT ........ 266 NEWTON CREATED HIS NEW MATHEMATICS OF FLUXIONS ..... 267 NEWTON DEVELOPED HIS THREE LAWS OF MOTION ................. 267 NEWTON CREATED HIS LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION .... 267 Presented (1687) in his magnificent book, PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA. NEWTON AND ALCHEMY ...................................................................... 269 NEWTON’S PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA ............................................. 270 The greatest TREATISE on MOTION, published in 1687. NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION ............................................... 271 XXIV NEWTON’S FIRST LAW ........................................................................... 271 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW ....................................................................... 272 NEWTON’S THIRD LAW .......................................................................... 272 NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION ............................ 273 With NEWTON’S discovery of the FORCE of GRAVITY, he revolutionized our conception of our SOLAR SYSTEM and of our entire UNIVERSE, and UNIFIED the TERRESTRIAL LAWS and the COSMIC LAWS. JOSEPH LOUIS LAGRANGE (1736 - 1813) - ITALIAN-FRENCH ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN ................................................ 276 Proposed (1788) in his book, “ANALYTICAL MECHANICS”, the PHENOMENON of PERTURBATIONS produced by the INTERACTIONS of the PLANETS in our SOLAR SYSTEM. PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE (1749 - 1827) FRENCH ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................... 277 Also known as the FRENCH NEWTON. Advanced the mathematical treatment of LAGRANGE’S PERTURBATIONS and of NEWTON’S GRAVITY and PLANETARY ASTRONOMY in his book “ CELESTIAL MECHANICS, published in 1799-1825. UNITING ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS ................ 279 UNIFICATION IS THE ATTEMPT TO EMBRACE ALL THE PHENOMENA OF NATURE INTO A GENERAL AND COMPREHENSIVE SET OF LAWS THAT DEFINE OUR UNIVERSE. EINSTEIN’S NEW PHYSICS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY AND GENERAL RELATIVITY .................................................................. 282 EINSTEIN’S THEORY OF RELATIVITY MARKS THE BEGINNING OF OUR MODERN RELATIVISTIC PHYSICS, WHICH COMPLETELY TRANSFORMED THE WORLD OF PHYSICS AND HOW WE UNDERSTAND OUR UNIVERSE. THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL ...................................................... 268 THE QUANTUM THEORY AND QUANTUM MECHANICS ............... 286 THE MODERN ASTRONOMY OF THE 20TH CENTURY .................... 291 XXV DURING THE 20TH CENTURY, MODERN ASTRONOMY BECAME THE ASTRONOMY OF GIANT TELESCOPES DESIGNED TO EXPAND THE BOUNDARIES & UNVEIL THE FANTASTIC SECRETS OF OUR UNIVERSE. GEORGE ELLERY HALE (1868 - 1938) AMERICAN SOLAR ASTRONOMER ......................................................... 293 Created some of the early GIANT TELESCOPES of the 20th century and helped to develop the ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETIES and JOURNALS. A FIXED UNIVERSE VS. AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE ....................... 299 AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE VS. THE STEADY- STATE THEORY .. 299 THIS IS THE BEGINNING OF THE STORY OF HOW OUR UNIVERSE ORIGINATED. A STORY THAT TURNED INTO A MAGNIFICENT SCIENTIFIC JOURNEY WITH PRODIGIOUS AND FASCINATING IDEAS THAT ARE STILL CHALLENGING OUR MOST BRILLIANT SCIENTISTS. WILLEM DE SITTER (1872 - 1934) - DUTCH ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ 303 Supported (early 1900’S) ALBERT EINSTEIN’S THEORY OF RELATIVITY and the idea of an EXPANDING UNIVERSE, which became widely accepted in the 20th century. SIR ARTHUR STANLEY EDDINGTON (1882 - 1944) - ENGLISH ASTROPHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN ........................................... 304 Observed the TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE of 1919, which helped to confirm EINSTEIN’S THEORY of GENERAL RELATIVITY and the power of the FORCE of GRAVITY to BEND a BEAM of LIGHT. Announced (1924) his MASS-LUMINOSITY LAW, which helped to determine the location of COSMIC BODIES in SPACE. EDWIN POWELL HUBBLE (1889 - 1953) AMERICAN ASTRONOMER ....................................................................... 307 Proposed the concept of the EXTRAGALACTIC SPACE beyond our GALAXIES. Determined that the ANDROMEDA NEBULA was a GALAXY. Concluded (1929) that our GALACTIC UNIVERSE was expanding as XXVI WILLEM De SITTER had proposed. Proposed the EFFECTIVE HUBBLE RADIUS beyond which there was the UNKNOWN UNIVERSE of the COSMOS. This became a very important COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER in ASTRONOMY. WALTER BAADE (1893 - 1960) GERMAN-AMERICAN ASTRONOMER .................................................... 310 Developed (1952) a new PERIOD-LUMINOSITY CURVE Studied the ANDROMEDA GALAXY and concluded that it was farther away than EDWIN HUBBLE had estimated. Increased the size of our UNIVERSE 20- fold and the age of our UNIVERSE. SIR EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON (1892 - 1965) ENGLISH PHYSICIST .................................................................................. 313 Used RADIO PHYSICS and RADIO TELESCOPES (early 1900’S) to study Our ATMOSPHERE and beyond. Discovered the RADIO REFLECTION LAYERS & the IONOSPHERE. GEORGES LEMAITRE (1894 - 1966)S BELGIAN ASTRONOMER AND PRIEST .................................................. 315 Proposed (1920’s) the THEORY of an EXPANDING UNIVERSE, which was also popularized by EDWIN HUBBLE in the UNITED STATES. Proposed his hypothesis of the PRIMEVAL ATOM or the COSMIC EGG (now known as a SINGULARITY), which led to the BIG BANG THEORY. Supported ALBERT EINSTEIN’S THEORY of RELATIVITY. GEORGE GAMOW (1904 - 1968) RUSSIAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIST ............................................................ 319 Studied (mid 1900’S) the PROCESS of STELLAR EVOLUTION and the HISTORY of our SOLAR SYSTEM. Proposed ideas on the FORMATION of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. THOMAS GOLD (1920 - 2004) AUSTRIAN-AMERICAN ASTRONOMER ................................................. 321 Proposed (1950’s) the STEADY-STATE THEORY with CONTINUOUS EXPANSION, responsible for the ORIGIN of our UNIVERSE. Here, new GALAXIES formed as old GALAXIES disappeared into our NON-OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE. He also speculated on the ORIGIN of LIFE early in the history of our PLANET. SIR FRED HOYLE (1915 - 2001)- ENGLISH ASTRONOMER. ............ 323 XXVII Proposed several pathways in the formation of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. Supported THOMAS GOLD’S STEADY-STATE THEORY of CONTINUOUS EXPANSION on the ORIGIN of our UNIVERSE. CARL SAGAN (1934 - 1996) - AMERICAN ASTROPHYSICIST AND COSMOLOGIST ................................................................................... 325 Sagan was associated with the SPACE PROGRAM (the NASA PROGRAM). Performed some research on EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE. ARNO ALLAN PENZIAS (1933 - ) - AMERICAN PHYSICIST AND RADIO ASTRONOMER ...................................................................... 328 SHELDON LEE GLASHOW (1932 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST ................................................. 239 ROGER PENROSE (1931 - ) ENGLISH MATHEMATICAL PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN ..... 331 Developed ( 1900’S) the CONCEPTS of BLACK HOLES and SINGULARITIES together with STEPHEN HAWKING. STEPHEN WILLIAM HAWKING (1942 - 2018) - ENGLISH PHYSICIST AND COSMOLOGIST ................................................................................... 332 HAWKING and ROGER PENROSE helped to understand the CONCEPTS of BLACK HOLES, SINGULARITIES, BIG BANG THEORY and ALBERT EINSTEIN’S THEORY of RELATIVITY. HAWKING also worked on the STRING THEORY, a THEORY of UNIFICATION and on the understanding of the ORIGIN of our UNIVERSE. EDWARD WITTEN (1951 - ) - AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST, MATHEMATICIAN AND COSMOLOGIST .......................... 335 WITTEN is regarded as a brilliant THEORETICAL PHYSICIST who may become the next ALBERT EINSTEIN of the 21st century. Characterized the STRING THEORY (or M-THEORY), which has become a leading idea in the UNIFICATION of our LAWS of PHYSICS. ALAN HARVEY GUTH (1947 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST AND COSMOLOGIST ............ 337 GUTH is a pioneer on the THEORY OF COSMIC INFLATION and a supporter of the idea of an existing MULTIVERSE. XXVIII STEVEN WEINBERG (1933 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST .................................................. 337 WEINBERG has done research on PARTICLE PHYSICS & QUANTUM GRAVITY. Proposed his MODEL on the UNIFICATION of ELECTROMAGNETISM and the WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE involved in BETA DECAY. GABRIELE VENEZIANO (1942 - ) ITALIAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST ...................................................... 339 Worked on explaining the STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE of the ATOM. Introduced (1968) the rudiments of THE STRING THEORY LEONARD SUSSKIND (1940 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST .................................................. 340 Studied (1970’S) the PHYSICS of ELEMENTARY PARTICLES and expanded the ideas on the STRING THEORY. JOHN HENRY SCHWARZ (1941 - AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST .................................................. 342 SCHWARZ is regarded as one of the FOUNDERS of the STRING THEORY. MICHAEL BORIS GREEN (1946 - ) - BRITISH PHYSICIST ................ 342 GREEN pioneered the studies on THE STRING THEORY together with JOHN SCHWARZ. DAVID JONATHAN GROSS (1941 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST .................................................. 343 Gross is a THEORETICAL PHYSICIST and a STRING THEORIST with magnificent qualifications. WERNER VON BRAUN ( 1912-1977 )- GERMAN-AMERICAN ROCKET ENGINEER ...............................................................................344 The genius engineer who developed ROCKET SCIENCE and helped to take MAN to the MOON (1969) and into the OUTER SPACE (1961). XXIX CLOSING COMMENTS ON THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND ASTRONOMY ................................ 344 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY ........................................348 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE PHYSICAL WORLD ............ 354 THE ATOM IS OUR FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCK OF MATTER AND THE UNIVERSAL SOURCE OF ENERGY IN OUR UNIVERSE. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 354 THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA AND THE PHYSICAL WORLD ............... 356 THE GREEK PHILOSOPHERS AND THE BEGINNING OF OUR SCIENCES. (600 BC - 200 AC) DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER .................... 356 Creator of the first ATOMIC THEORY of ANTIQUITY, which gave birth to the SCIENTIFIC WORLD of our WESTERN CIVILIZATION. EMPEDOCLES (492 - 432 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER .................... 359 Proposed The FOUR FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENTS Of Our UNIVERSE: EARTH, WATER, AIR And FIRE, which led to the development of our FANTASTIC WORLD of CHEMISTRY. ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND NATURALIST ........................................... 360 Founder of The Athenian School, The Lyceum and the foremost Natural Philosopher of the GREEK ERA. Created The New Science Of Zoology. THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND NATURALIST ........................................... 360 Succeeded Aristotle at The Lyceum School and Created The New Science XXX of Botany. PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND MATHEMATICIAN .................................. 361 Created The Theory Of Numbers And the Pythagorean Theorem, expressed as: c2 = a2 + b2 . APOLLONIUS (262 - 190 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN ............... 361 Introduced The GEOMETRY Of The CONIC SECTIONS, Including the CIRCLE, ELLIPSES, PARABOLAS And HYPERBOLAS. ERATOSTHENES (276 - 196 BC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER AND GEOGRAPHER .................................................................................... 361 First To Measure The Earth’s Circumference, in about 240 B.C. EUCLID (325 - 270 BC)- GREEK MATHEMATICIAN ........................... 362 Established The Foundation Of Geometry in his Book “Elements” while working at the SCHOOL of Alexandria. ARCHIMEDES (287 - 212 BC) GREEK MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .......................................... 363 One of the most BRILLIANT SCIENTISTS of the GREEK ERA. Created The Principle of Buoyancy And The Principle of The Lever. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100 - 170 AC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER ...... 365 Proposed his GEOCENTRIC THEORY, which placed the EARTH as the CENTER of our SOLAR SYSTEM. CTESIBIUS (285 - 222 BC)- GREEK INVENTOR .................................. 365 Built the first WATER CLOCK, which marked the beginning of our CONSCIOUSNESS of TIME in our LIVES and in the DEVELOPMENT of EVENTS. THE MEDIEVAL ERA AND THE PHYSICAL WORLD ........................ 367 OUR SCIENCES WERE IN THE HANDS OF ALCHEMISTS AND THEIR MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY.( (5TH - 14TH CENTURIES) THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA AND MODERN PHYSICS .......... 369 (THE 15TH-16TH-17TH CENTURIES) PHYSICS AND THE MODERN SCIENCES BEGAN THEIR GLORIOUS XXXI JOURNEY DURING THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA AND THE MAGNIFICENT SCIENTIFIC STUDIES BY GALILEO GALILEI, NICOLAS COPERNICUS, JOHANN KEPLER AND RENE DESCARTES. LEONE BATTISTA ALBERTI (1404 - 1472) ITALIAN ARTIST AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................. 370 Published (1434) his LAWS of PERSPECTIVE, which led to the DEVELOPMENT of our MAGNIFICENT THREE-DIMENSIONAL ART. SIMON STEVINUS (1548 - 1620) FLEMISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST ..................................... 371 Demonstrated (1586) that the PRESSURE of a LIQUID COLUMN on a SURFACE, DEPENDED on its HEIGHT and SURFACE AREA. LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452 - 1519) ITALIAN ARTIST, SCIENTIST AND MILITARY ENGINEER ................. 373 The SUPREME RENAISSANCE MAN of all time as an ARTIST, a SCIENTIST, an ANATOMIST and a military ENGINEER. Painted the MONA LISA and the LAST SUPPER. GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) ITALIAN ASTRONOMER, PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN ......... 375 Another RENAISSANCE MAN who exalted the sciences of PHYSICS, MATHEMATICS and ASTRONOMY. Developed the SCIENTIFIC METHOD of EXPERIMENTATION and the LAWS of FALLING BODIES. Discovered (1581) the ISOCHRONISM of the PENDULUM, which led to the creation (1656) of the first PENDULUM CLOCK by CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS. Used (early 1600’S) the TELESCOPE to study our SOLAR SYSTEM and to expand the limits and grandeur of our COSMOS. THE ISOCHRONISM OF THE PENDULUM .......................................... 378 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION OF FALLING BODIES .................. 380 VELOCITY VERSUS ACCELERATION ................................................... 382 ASTRONOMY AND THE TELESCOPE ................................................... 384 GALILEO’S TELESCOPE ........................................................................... 385 XXXII EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI (1608 - 1647) - ITALIAN PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ 387 Invented (1643) the first BAROMETER, demonstrated that our ATMOSPHERE had WEIGHT and created the first MAN-MADE VACUUM. BLAISE PASCAL (1623 - 1662) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .......................................................................................... 390 Published (1639) his book, “THE GEOMETRY OF THE CONIC SECTIONS” Pioneer (1642) the idea of a calculating machine. Founded with PIERRE de FERMAT a MODERN THEORY of PROBABILITY. CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS (1629 - 1695) DUTCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST ......................................... 393 Invented (1656) his PENDULUM CLOCK or GRANDFATHER CLOCK, which marked the beginning of ACCURATE TIME-KEEPING and of our MAGNIFICENT SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. ROBERT BOYLE (1627 - 1691) IRISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST ............................................................ 397 BOYLE is regarded as one of the FOUNDERS of MODERN CHEMISTRY. Proposed (1600’s) his CORPUSCULAR THEORY where the ATOM was again regarded as the BASIC BUILDING BLOCK of MATTER. Published (1661) his magnificent book, “THE SCEPTICAL CHYMIST” where he first defined the concept of “AN ELEMENT. ROBERT HOOKE (1635 - 1703) ENGLISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST ...................................................... 402 Published (1665) his book, “MICROGRAPHIA), a MASTERPIECE in BIOLOGY where he presented his MICROSCOPIC STUDIES of the BIOLOGICAL WORLD and his DISCOVERY of “THE CELL”. GABRIEL D. FAHRENHEIT (1686 - 1736) GERMAN-DUTCH PHYSICIST ................................................................... 408 Created (1714) his MERCURY THERMOMETER with a scale between 32 degrees (the freezing point of water) and 212 degrees (the boiling point XXXIII of water). ANDERS CELSIUS (1701 - 1744) - SWEDISH ASTRONOMER .......... 410 Proposed (1742) his MERCURY THERMOMETER with a scale between o degrees (the freezing point of water) and 100 degrees ( the boiling point of water). THE STORY OF THERMODYNAMICS ................................................... 412 THERMODYNAMICS IS THE SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH THE CONVERSION OF HEAT INTO ENERGY, CHANGE AND MOTION. ANCIENT IDEAS FROM THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA .......................... 413 THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION ................................................... 414 THE CREATION OF THE THERMOMETER TO MEASURE HEAT AND TEMPERATURE, RESULTED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF THERMODYNAMICS IN RELATION TO ENERGY, CHANGE AND MOTION. THERMODYNAMICS AND THE CONCEPT OF KINETIC ENERGY . 416 THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS .................................................... 416 FIRST LAW - THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY ............. 416 SECOND LAW - THE CONVERSION OF HEAT ENERGY INTO MECHANICAL WORK .................................................................... 417 THIRD LAW - THE ENTROPY PRINCIPLE .......................................... 417 NICOLAS LEONARD CARNOT (1796 - 1832) FRENCH PHYSICIST ................................................................................... 418 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THERMODYNAMICS. GUSTAVE GASPARD DE CORIOLIS (1792 - 1843) FRENCH PHYSICIST ................................................................................... 420 BENOIT PIERRE CLAPEYRON (1799 - 1864) FRENCH ENGINEER ................................................................................... 421 XXXIV JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE (1818 - 1889) - ENGLISH PHYSICIST .... 423 Studied the mechanical equivalent of heat . Proposed the LAW of CONSERVATION of ENERGY, which indicated that ENERGY could not be CREATED nor DESTROYED, only CONVERTED from one form to another. THE MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT ...................................... 424 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK AND HEAT ....................... 424 RUDOLF JULIUS CLAUSIUS (1822 - 1888)- GERMAN PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ 426 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THERMODYNAMICS. Introduced (1850) the concept of ENTROPY or the DEGREE of STRUCTURAL DISORDER in any SYSTEM. HERMANN LUDWIG VON HELMHOLTZ (1821 - 1894) GERMAN PHYSICIST .................................................................................. 428 ONE OF THE CREATORS OF THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. LORD WILLIAM THOMSON KELVIN (1824 - 1907) SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .................................... 433 Created his new SCALE of ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURES, where -273 ̊C corresponded to 0 ̊ ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE. Or 0 ̊ KELVIN. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .................................... 438 CREATED (1860) HIS KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. Developed (1864-1873) the mathematical characterization of the PHENOMENON of ELECTROMAGNETISM, where he unified ELECTRICITY and MAGNETISM into a more GENERAL CONCEPT. This was regarded as a BRILLIANT ACCOMPLISHMENT IN SCIENCE. LUDWIG EDWARD BOLTZMANN (1844 - 1906) AUSTRIAN PHYSICIST ............................................................................... 444 DEVELOPED (1871) HIS EQUATION FOR ENTROPY, , XXXV S = k log W . Developed his KINETIC THEORY of GASES, independently of JAMES CLERK MAXWELL. JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS (1839 - 1903) AMERICAN PHYSICIST .............................................................................. 448 A brilliant American scientist who helped to develop CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS and the concepts of FREE ENERGY, CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM and the PHASE RULE, published between 1876 and 1878 HERMANN WALTHER NERNST (1864 - 1941) GERMAN PHYSICAL CHEMIST ................................................................. 451 Proposed (1906) his THIRD LAW of THERMODYNAMICS. Helped to develop PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, THERMODYNAMICS and the PROCESS of IONIZATION. THE STORY OF THE GAS LAWS AND THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES .............................................. 454 THE STORY OF THE GASES IS AS FANTASTIC AS THE ECLECTIC NATURE OF THE GASES THEMSELVES. THE STORY OF THE CHEMISTRY OF GASES ..................................... 455 ROBERT BOYLE (1627 - 1691) - IRISH CHEMIST AND PHYSICIST 455 BOYLE IS REGARDED AS ONE OF THE FIRST MODERN CHEMISTS. PUBLISHED (1661) HIS BOOK, “THE SCEPTICAL CHYMIST”, which introduced CHEMISTRY as a SCIENCE of its own. Here, he defined the CONCEPT of a “CHEMICAL ELEMENT” for the first time. ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) - FRENCH CHEMIST ............... 456 The FOUNDER of the new SCIENCE of CHEMISTRY. The FOUNDER of the QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. Proposed (1789) the LAW of CONSERVATION of MATTER. Published some of the first books on CHEMISTRY. JOSEPH BLACK (1728 - 1799) - SCOTTISH CHEMIST ....................... 457 Discovered in 1756, his FIXED AIR (or carbon dioxide). HENRY CAVENDISH (1731 - 1810) - ENGLISH CHEMIST AND PHYSICIST .................................................................................................... 457 Discovered, in 1766, his INFLAMMABLE GAS, which LAVOISIER XXXVI named HYDROGEN (from the Latin word meaning, water forming). JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) - ENGLISH CHEMIST ................. 457 Discovered, in 1774, his DEPHLOGISTICATED AIR, which LAVOISIER named OXYGEN. KARL W. SCHEELE (1742 - 1786) - SWEDISH CHEMIST .................. 458 Discovered, in 1771-1772, his FIRE AIR (or OXYGEN), a name that he chose because the gas promoted fires. DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749 - 1819) - SCOTTISH CHEMIST ........ 458 Discovered, in 1772, his new gas, NITROGEN. LAVOISIER characterized the nature of NITROGEN a few years later. JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) - ENGLISH CHEMIST .......................... 458 - Proposed (1800 - 1808) his ATOMIC THEORY, from the CHEMISTRY point of view, where the ATOM was the BASIC BUILDING BLOCK OF MATTER. Introduced the first ATOMIC SYMBOLS and RELATIVE ATOMIC WEIGHTS of the known chemical elements. With their ATOMIC WEIGHTS, the ATOM became an entity with QUANTITATIVE PROPERTIES. JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) - SWEDISH CHEMIST ................. 459 Supported DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY. Proposed (1813) his CHEMICAL SYMBOLS for the various CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. Introduced his CHEMICAL FORMULAS and his CHEMICAL RADICALS. DMITRI MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) - RUSSIAN CHEMIST .............. 461 Created (1869-1871) his PERIODIC TABLE of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, which became the basic source of CHEMICAL INFORMATION for the scientific community. THE STORY OF THE PHYSICS OF GASES ............................................ 462 UNDERSTANDING OUR ENVIRONMENT BEGAN WITH THE STORY OF THE GASES AND THEIR ECLECTIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA OF ANTIQUITY ......................................... 463 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER .................... 463 CREATED THE FIRST ATOMIC THEORY OF ANTIQUITY, which gave birth XXXVII to the SCIENCES in our WESTERN CIVILIZATION. EMPEDOCLES (492 - 432 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER .................... 464 PROPOSED his FOUR FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENTS OF OUR UNIVERSE: EARTH, WATER, AIR AND FIRE, which started the new SCIENCE Of CHEMISTRY. ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND ZOOLOGIST .............................................. 464 FOUNDER OF THE ATHENIAN SCHOOL, THE LYCEUM and the FOREMOST NATURAL PHILOSOPHER of the GREEK ERA. CREATED the NEW SCIENCE of ZOOLOGY. THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND BOTANIST ................................................ 464 SUCCEEDED ARISTOTLE AT THE LYCEUM SCHOOL AND CREATED THE NEW SCIENCE OF BOTANY. PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ 465 CREATED THE THEORY OF NUMBERS AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM, EXPRESSED AS: c2 = a2 + b2 . EUCLID (325 - 270 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN .......................... 465 ESTABLISHED THE FOUNDATION OF GEOMETRY AND WROTE his BOOK “ELEMENTS”, which served as a source of mathematical information until the ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. ARCHIMEDES (287 - 212 BC) GREEK MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .......................................... 466 Regarded as one of the most brilliant scientists during the GREEK ERA. Created the PRINCIPLE of BUOYANCY and the PRINCIPLE of the LEVER, which gave birth to the NEW SCIENCE of PHYSICS. THE RENAISSANCE ERA AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION .... 467 THE RENAISSANCE ERA GAVE BIRTH TO THE SCIENCE AND XXXVIII TECHNOLOGY THAT WAS TO BECOME THE FANTASTIC SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION ,WHICH CREATED OUR MAGNIFICENT WORLD. GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) - ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN, PHYSICIST AND ASTRONOMER .............................................................. 468 The Renaissance man that developed the scientific method of experimentation and created the laws of falling bodies. Discovered (1581) the ISOCHRONISM of the PENDULUM. Used his telescope (early 1600’s) to reveal the nature of our solar system. Galileo used the mathematical characterization as the language of science and nature. EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI (1608 - 1647) - ITALIAN PHYSICIST 470 Invented (1643) the FIRST BAROMETER, demonstrated that our ATMOSPHERE had WEIGHT and created the first MAN-MADE VACUUM. BLAISE PASCAL (1623 - 1662) - FRENCH PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN ............................................................................ 470 PASCAL and PIERRE de FERMAT created the MODERN THEORY of PROBABILITY Published a book on the GEOMETRY of the CONIC SECTIONS. Invented (1642) a CALCULATING MACHINE. THE GAS LAWS .......................................................................................... 471 ROBERT BOYLE (1627 - 1691) - IRISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST 471 GUILLAUME AMONTONS (1663 - 1705) - FRENCH PHYSICIST ..... 471 DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700 - 1782) - SWISS MATHEMATICIAN .... 473 THE THERMOMETER AND THE TEMPERATURE SCALE .............. 474 GABRIEL DANIEL FAHRENHEIT (1686 - 1736) GERMAN-DUTCH PHYSICIST ................................................................... 475 ANDERS CELSIUS (1701 - 1744) - SWEDISH ASTRONOMER .......... 475 LORD WILLIAM THOMSON KELVIN (1824 - 1907) SCOTTISH PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN .................................... 475 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) - ENGLISH CHEMIST .......................... 476 XXXIX JACQUES ALEXANDRE CHARLES (1746 - 1823) FRENCH PHYSICIST ................................................................................... 477 JOSEPH LOUIS GAY-LUSSAC (1778 - 1850) - FRENCH CHEMIST .. 479 AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776 - 1856) - ITALIAN PHYSICIST ........... 479 AVOGADRO’S LAW OF 1811 .................................................................. 480 JOHANNES VAN DER WAALS (1837 - 1923) - DUTCH PHYSICIST 481 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805- 1869) SCOTTISH PHYSICAL CHEMIST .............................................................. 483 THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES ........................................................ 484 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .................................... 484 LUDWIG EDWARD BOLTZMANN (1844 - 1906) AUSTRIAN PHYSICIST ............................................................................... 485 A CLOSING NOTE OF ADMIRATION AND RESPECT TO THE GENIUS AND CREATIVITY OF SCIENTISTS .............................. 485 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM .............. 486 THIS WAS THE BEGINNING OF THE NEW REVOLUTION ON ELECTROMAGNETISM, WHICH YOUNG ALBERT EINSTEIN RECEIVED WITH GREAT ENTHUSIASM THE PHENOMENA OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM ............... 489 THE UNIFICATION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM INTO THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM BY MICHAEL FARADAY WAS A MAGNIFICENT ACCOMPLISHMENT IN THE WORLD OF PHYSICS AND SCIENCE WITH FANTASTIC IMPLICATIONS. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706 - 1790) AMERICAN STATESMAN AND SCIENTIST ............................................ 490 Benjamin franklin DISCOVERED ELECTRICITY in the ATMOSPHERE, during a storm, while flying a kite. XL WILLIAM GILBERT (1544 - 1603) ENGLISH PHYSICIST AND PHYSICIAN ................................................... 492 Gilbert published (1600) his book, “THE MAGNETE”, which introduced the CONCEPT of MAGNETISM to the Scientific community. ROBERT BOYLE (1627 - 1691) - IRISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST 492 OTTO VON GUERICKE (1602 - 1686) - GERMAN PHYSICIST ......... 493 THE CREATION OF THE LEYDEN JAR ................................................. 494 PIETER VAN MUSSCHENBROEK (1692 - 1761) DUTCH PHYSICIST ..................................................................................... 495 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) - ENGLISH CHEMIST ................. 496 LUIGI GALVANI (1737 - 1798) - ITALIAN ANATOMIST ................... 498 THE GREAT INVENTION AND DISCOVERY OF THE CENTURY .... 500 THE INVENTION OF THE ELECTRIC BATTERY AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT OR DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY BY ALESSANDRO VOLTA IN 1800 REVOLUTIONIZED THE WORLD OF ENERGY, SCIENCE AND COMMUNICATION. ALESSANDRO GIUSEPPE VOLTA (1745 - 1827) ITALIAN PHYSICIST ................................................................................... 501 VOLTA Invented (1800) the ELECTRIC BATTERY and discovered the ELECTRIC CURRENT or DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY, which REVOLUTIONIZED the world of ENERGY, SCIENCE and COMMUNICATION. HANS CHRISTIAN OERSTED (1777 - 1851) DANISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST ........................................................ 504 Found that electricity and magnetism interacted in a way that an electrified wire would turn, at right angle, the needle of a magnet, located in close proximity. ANDRE MARIE AMPERE (1775 - 1836) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST ........................................................ 506 XLI DOMINIQUE FRANCOIS ARAGO (1786 - 1853) FRENCH PHYSICIST ................................................................................... 507 GEORG SIMON OHM (1789 - 1854) - GERMAN PHYSICIST ............. 509 SIR HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) - ENGLISH CHEMIST .............. 510 Using the newly invented ELECTRIC BATTERY, DAVY created (early 1800’S) the new science of ELECTROCHEMISTRY, which he used to discover several important CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, including SODIUM, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM and BARIUM. THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM ............................... 513 MICHAEL FARADAY (1791 - 1867) - ENGLISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST ...................................................................................................... 513 Faraday discovered (early 1800’s) the PHENOMENON of ELECTROMAGNETISM, and invented the ELECTRIC MOTOR and other fantastic instruments, which revolutionized the world of SCIENCE & ENERGY. THE CONCEPT OF THE ELECTRIC MOTOR (1831) ......................... 519 THE CONCEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND THE ELECTRIC TRANSFORMER (1831) ................................... 520 FARADAY’S LINES OF FORCE (1831 - 1844) .................................... 521 THE CONCEPT OF THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR (1831) ............... 521 JOSEPH HENRY (1797 - 1878) - AMERICAN PHYSICIST .................. 523 DEVELOPED (early 1800’s) THE IDEA OF ELECTROMAGNETS. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST .................................... 527 Developed (1864-1873) the MATHEMATICAL CHARACTERIZATION of the UNIFIED CONCEPT of ELECTROMAGNETISM, which became one of the most magnificent triumphs in science. HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ (1853 - 1928) DUTCH PHYSICIST ..................................................................................... 530 One of the giants in PHYSICS who contributed to ALBERT EINSTEIN’S THEORY of RELATIVITY in the early 1900’s. XLII SAMUEL FINLEY MORSE (1791-1872) AMERICAN ARTIST AND INVENTOR ..................................................... 534 Invented (by 1840) the TELEGRAPH and the MORSE CODE. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847 - 1922) SCOTTISH-AMERICAN SCIENTIST, INVENTOR AND TEACHER ....... 536 Invented (by 1876) his TELEPHONE SYSTEM. THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847 - 1931) - AMERICAN INVENTOR .. 541 Invented (1879) the first ELECTRIC LIGHT BULB. Patented (1880’s) a SYSTEM of ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION, using a 110 VOLTS DIRECT CURRENT. Invented the STOCK TICKER, the PHONOGRAPH, the MOTION PICTURE CAMERA and many other fantastic inventions. NIKOLA TESLA (1856 - 1943) - CROATIAN-AMERICAN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER ........................................................................... 542 A brilliant scientist who design the ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTRIC SYSTEM and many other fantastic ideas. HEINRICH RUDOLF HERTZ (1857 - 1894) - GERMAN PHYSICIST 544 Discovered (1888) the RADIO WAVES . MARCHESE GUGLIELMO MARCONI (1874 - 1937) - ITALIAN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER ........................................................................... 547 Patented (1896 and 1900-1901) the FIRST WIRELESS RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM using the RADIO WAVES discovered by HEINRICH HERTZ. MARCONI began to COMMERCIALIZE his WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM in 1897- 1898, which became a great success during the 1904 WORLD’S FAIR in St. Louis . EDISON was also demonstrating his MAGNIFICENT ELECTRIC LIGHT at the St. LOUIS WORLD’S FAIR. XLIII CLOSING COMMENTS ON THE STORY OF ELECTROMAGNETISM ...................................................................... 549 ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL ............................................................................................552 The MAGNIFICENT QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL was created in 1913, by the brilliant physicist, NIELS BOHR. THE STORY OF ALBERT EINSTEIN AND HIS THEORIES OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY AND GENERAL RELATIVITY ....................... 566 ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879 - 1955) - GERMAN-AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST ....................................................................566 The FOUNDER of MODERN PHYSICS and the creator of the FOUR DIMENSIONAL FABRIC of our COSMIC SPACE. Characterized ENERGY, MATTER, SPACE, TIME and the NATURE of our FORCE of GRAVITY. Created the ATOM as our UNIVERSAL SOURCE of ENERGY (E=MC2) and as the FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCK of MATTER, NATURE and our MAGNIFICENT UNIVERSE. EINSTEIN’S MIRACLE YEAR - 1905 .................................................... 568 EINSTEIN’S FIRST PAPER ON “THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT”, 1905 ............................................. 568 EINSTEIN’S SECOND PAPER ON “THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, 1905 ............................................... 569 EINSTEIN’S THIRD PAPER ON “CALCULATING THE TRUE SIZE OF ATOMS”, 1905 ....................... 570 EINSTEIN’S FOURTH PAPER ON “THE THEORY OF LIGHT AND RELATIVE MOTION”, 1905 .......... 570 EINSTEIN’S FIFTH PAPER ON, E=MC2 “THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY”, 1905 ............................. 572 XLIV EINSTEIN’S SIXTH PAPER ON “THE THEORY OF GENERAL RELATIVITY”, 1915-1916 ............... 575 THE STORY OF THE SPEED OF LIGHT ................................................ 579 DETERMINING THE SPEED OF LIGHT WAS QUITE A CHALLENGE, BUT ONE THAT NEEDED TO BE ANSWERED IN ORDER TO CONQUER OUR FUTURE SCIENTIFIC HORIZONS. GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) - ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN, PHYSICIST AND ASTRONOMER .............................................................. 579 GALILEO was the first to attempt (1638) MEASURING the SPEED of LIGHT. OLAUS ROEMER (1644 - 1710) - DANISH ASTRONOMER ............... 580 JAMES BRADLEY (1693 - 1762) - ENGLISH ASTRONOMER ............ 581 ARMAND HIPPOLYTE FIZEAU (1819 - 1896) FRENCH PHYSICIST ................................................................................... 583 JEANBERNARDFOUCAULT(1819-1868)-FRENCHPHYSICIST 584 ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON (1852 - 1931) GERMAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIST ............................................................ 586 ALBERT MICHELSON dedicated his life trying to attain an accurate measurement of the SPEED of LIGHT, between 1879 & 1927. THE STORY OF THE ATOM THE QUANTUM THEORY AND QUANTUM MECHANICS ............... 588 THE QUANTUM THEORY PROPOSED (1900) BY MAX PLANCK RESULTED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF QUANTUM MECHANICS, WHICH COMPLETELY REVOLUTIONIZED THE WORLD OF ATOMIC PHYSICS, SCIENCE AND COMMUNICATION. MAX KARL PLANCK (1858 - 1947) - GERMAN PHYSICIST .............. 593 Proposed (1900) his QUANTUM THEORY, which indicated that ENERGY, Like MATTER, came in BUNDLES that he named, a QUANTUM of ENERGY. NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885 - 1962) - DANISH PHYSICIST ............. 595 Applied in 1913 the QUANTUM THEORY in the creation of his XLV QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS point of view. BOHR, BORN, HEISENBERG, SCHRODINGER, DIRAC, De BROGLIE and PAULI, were instrumental in the DEVELOPMENT of the NEW SCIENCE of QUANTUM MECHANICS WITH ITS NEW PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS. MAX BORN (1882 - 1970) - GERMAN-BRITISH PHYSICIST ............. 598 One of the creators of QUANTUM MECHANICS. WERNER KARL HEISENBERG (1901 - 1976) GERMAN PHYSICIST .................................................................................. 600 Created (1927) his UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE, which became fundamental in QUANTUM MECHANICS and the NEW PHYSICS of STATISTICAL PROBABILITIES. ERWIN SCHRODINGER (1887 - 1961) - AUSTRIAN PHYSICIST ..... 603 PAUL DIRAC (1902 - 1984) - ENGLISH PHYSICIST ............................ 604 LOUIS VICTOR DE BROGLIE (1892 - 1987) FRENCH PHYSICIST ................................................................................... 606 WOLFGANG PAULI (1900 - 1958) AUSTRIAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIST ......................................................... 608 CLOSING COMMENTS ON THE STORY OF THE QUANTUM THEORY ........................................................................ 609 AN ABSTRACT ON THE GREATEST FUNDAMENTAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE WORLD OF SCIENCE........................612 UNIVERSITIES IN THE USA, EUROPE AND LATIN AMERICA........629 ABOUT THE AUTHOR .............................................................................. 655 PUBLICATIONS WRITTEN BY THE AUTHOR ................................... 657 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE ............................................................. 674

 

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