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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology : Revised 8th Edition

By Albert Martini

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Book Id: WPLBN0100002502
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
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Reproduction Date: 9/1/2015

Title: The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology : Revised 8th Edition  
Author: Albert Martini
Volume: Revised 8th Edition
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science
Collections: Science, Authors Community, Most Popular Books in China
Historic
Publication Date:
2015
Publisher: Self-published
Member Page: Albert Martini

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Martini, D. A. (2015). The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology : Revised 8th Edition. Retrieved from http://www.worldpubliclibrary.org/


Description
The concept of science and the sciences. Fundamental and historical development in the sciences. Great ideas that revolutionize our scientific world. The story of the cell and Biology. The birth of modern Biology. The rise of the modern University and experimental stations. The cell as the basic building block of life. The origin of life. The development of microbiology and microscopy. The germ theory of diseases, vaccines, and antibiotics. The vector insects and infectious diseases. The virus, viral diseases, and vaccines. The principle of vegetation and the basic requirements of plants. William Harvey, the heart and the circulatory system. Carl Linneaus and the development of modern taxonomy in biology. Charles Darwin and the development of evolution in biology. Gregor Mendel and the development of genetics and the laws of heredity.

Summary
A science book in the area of Biology and Microbiology. It discusses the lives of over 200 scientists. Their accomplishments are illustrated with over 250 pictures and diagrams. The accomplishments of these scientists are presented chronologically and are related to each other in order to illustrate the evolution of knowledge about biology and microbiology from the Classic Greek era to the present.

Excerpt
THE GREATEST FUNDAMENTAL INVENTIONS CREATED BY MOTHER NATURE THE ATOM AND ITS CAPACITY TO STORE AND RELEASE UNIVERSAL ENERGY BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES THE CELL AND ITS CAPACITY TO SUSTAIN INDEPENDENT LIFE BY MEANS OF UNIQUE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSFORM SOLAR (LIGHT) ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL AND FOOD ENERGY BY MEANS OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES LIGHT AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSPORT ENERGY AND CHANGE OUR UNIVERSE BY TRANSFORMING DARKNESS INTO LIGHTNESS BY THE MIRACLE OF ILLUMINATION THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ITS CAPACITY TO PRODUCE THE DYNAMIC ELECTRIC CURRENT THAT ENERGIZES AND POWERS OUR UNIVERSE AND THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF ALL OF NATURE’S INTUITIVE CREATIONS IS THE PROCESS OF UNIVERSAL TRANSFORMATION, WHERE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TRANSFORM MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME AND LIFE ITSELF

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS SOME IDEAS WITH UNIQUE SIGNIFICANCE.....................1 THE STORY OF THE CELL AND BIOLOGY.........................78 THE CELL IS THE BASIC BUILDING UNIT OF THE BIOLOGICAL WORLD INTRODUCTION..................................................................78 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY ....................................................................................81 THE CONCEPT OF SCIENCE..................................................................... 82 A SCIENCE REPRESENTS A BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CHARACTERIZING A DISCIPLINE IN OUR NATURAL HISTORY. THE AGONY AND ECSTASY OF CREATION MAY SOMETIMES ALLOW US TO GO BEYOND OUR SCIENTIFIC BOUNDARIES & GUIDE OUR INTUITION TO DEFINE THE INDEFINABLE !!! FUNDAMENTAL AND HISTORIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENCES ....................................................................................... 85 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY.........................................89 LIFE AND OUR ENTIRE UNIVERSE ARE THE DIRECT PRODUCT OF E=MC2 GREAT IDEAS THAT REVOLUTIONIZED OUR SCIENTIFIC WORLD ........................................................................ 94 SOME OF THESE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS INCLUDED: DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) Greek Philosopher .......................................................... 94 Proposed the first ATOMIC THEORY during the CLASSIC GREEK ERA. XIV NICHOLAS COPERNICUS (1473 - 1543) Polish Astronomer .................................... 95 Proposed (1543) his HELIOCENTRIC THEORY where the SUN and not the EARTH was the CENTER of our SOLAR SYSTEM. GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) Italian Mathematician and Astronomer ......... 97 CREATOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF EXPERIMENTATION AND HIS LAWS OF MOTION WITH MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS TO CHARACTERIZE HIS INVESTIGATIONS. USED HIS TELESCOPE TO EXPLORE THE HEAVENS RENE DESCARTES (1596 - 1650) French Mathematician and Philosopher. ...... 99 CREATOR (1637) OF THE CARTESIAN COORDINATES AND THE NEW MATHEMATICS OF ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) English Scientist and Mathematician .................. 101 DISCOVERED (mid 1600’s) the FORCE of GRAVITY (! = ! !! !! ) and UNIFIED the TERRESTRIAL and COSMIC LAWS of MOTION. !! ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) French Chemist.................................................. 104 The FOUNDER (18TH century) of MODERN CHEMISTRY & creator of the LAW of the CONSERVATION of MATTER. CO-CREATOR of the METRIC SYSTEM IN 1795. JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) English Chemist ............................................................... 106 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. Developed (1800-1808) his MODERN ATOMIC THEORY from the CHEMISTRY POINT of VIEW and created the CONCEPT of the RELATIVE ATOMIC WEIGHTS. . JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) Swedish Chemist .................................................... 108 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. Creator (1813) of the MODERN ATOMIC SYMBOLS and the CHEMICAL FORMULAS. PROPOSED (1803) his THEORY of the CHEMICAL RADICALS. HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) English Chemist.......................................................... 108 The FOUNDER (early 1800’s) of the new science of ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Isolated (early 1800’s) several new chemical elements, including sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium and boron. AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776 - 1856) Italian Physicist ................................................ 108 Proposed (1811) his AVOGADRO’S HYPOTHESIS and the XV AVOGADRO’S NUMBER ( 6.022 X 1023 ) which was of fundamental value in PHYSICS and CHEMISTRY. DMITRI MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) Russian Chemist............................................... 108 Creator (1869-1871) of his PERIODIC TABLE of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. FRIEDRICH A. KEKULE (1829 - 1896) German Organic Chemist........................... 111 Creator (1800’S) of the CARBON CHEMISTRY. Introduced (1858) his STRUCTURAL FORMULAS, the CARBON TO CARBON BONDS and the BENZENE RING. JACOBUS VAN’T HOFF (1852 - 1911) Dutch Physical Chemist ............................... 112 Proposed (1874) his THREE DIMENSIONAL CARBON TETRAHEDRON. WILLIAM H. WOLLASTON (1766 - 1828) English Chemist and Physicist .......... 112 Proposed (1790’s) his CONCEPT of the EQUIVALENT WEIGHTS. EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825 - 1899) English Chemist............................................. 113 Introduced (1852) his THEORY of the VALENCE. SVANTE A. ARRHENIUS (1859 - 1927) Swedish Chemist.......................................... 113 Proposed (1884-1887) his fundamental THEORY of IONIZATION and his CONCEPT of the CATALYSTS (1889) in facilitating chemical reactions. FREDERICK SODDY (1877 - 1956) English Chemist .................................................... 115 Proposed (1910-1912) his CONCEPT of the CHEMICAL ISOTOPES, a FUNDAMENTAL ATOMIC PROPERTY, which REVOLUTIONIZED the WORLD of CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS. FRANCIS W. ASTON (1877 - 1945) English Chemist and Physicist........................ 115 Confirmed the existence of the CHEMICAL ISOTOPES proposed by SODDY And discovered several new ISOTOPES. HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) English Physicist ....................................................... 117 Introduced (1914) his CONCEPT of the ATOMIC NUMBER (THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS OF THE ATOM,) a fundamental ATOMIC PROPERTY IN CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS. HENRI BECQUEREL (1852 - 1906) French Physicist ................................................... 117 Discovered (1896) the PHENOMENON of RADIOACTIVITY, which REVOLUTIONIZED the WORLD of SCIENCE and HUMANITY. WILHELM K. ROENTGEN (1845 - 1923) German Physicist ...................................... 118 Discovered (1895) the X-RAYS, essential in SCIENCE & MEDICINE. XVI MARIE CURIE (1867 - 1934) French Chemist.................................................................. 119 PIERRE CURIE (1859 - 1906) French Chemist ................................................................ 119 They developed the CONCEPT of RADIOACTIVITY in the early 1900’s. ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL .............................................................................................119 MORE ON THE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS THAT WERE TO COME......................132 JOSEPH J. THOMSON (1856 - 1940) English Physicist ................................................ 132 Discovered (1897) the negatively charged subatomic particles, the ELECTRONS, which made the ATOM a NEW and DYNAMIC ENTITY. With the ELECTRON THOMSON started the new science of PARTICLE PHYSICS. ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871 - 1937) British Physicist............................................ 135 Discovered (early 1900’s) the ATOMIC NUCLEUS and the POSITIVELY CHARGED subatomic particles, the PROTONS of the NUCLEUS. Proposed (1911) his ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS POINT of VIEW. NIELS H. BOHR (1885 - 1962) Danish Physicist ............................................................. 137 Proposed (1913) his QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL, which became the MODERN ATOMIC MODEL in the SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. MAX K. PLANCK (1858 - 1947) German Physicist ......................................................... 139 Postulated (1900) his QUANTUM THEORY of ENERGY, which indicated that ENERGY, like MATTER, came in BUNDLES that he named, a QUANTUM of ENERGY. The QUANTUM THEORY led to the development of the new PHYSICS of QUANTUM MECHANICS, which completely changed the WORLD of SCIENCE. JAMES CHADWICK (1891 - 1974) English Physicist..................................................... 139 Discovered (1932) the NEUTRAL SUBATOMIC PARTICLES, the NEUTRONS, MADE THE ATOM A COMPLETE UNIT OF MATTER. ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879 - 1955 ) German Physicist................................................... 141 The FOUNDER of MODERN PHYSICS and proponent (1905 -1916) of his THEORY of RELATIVITY, where SPACE, TIME, ENERGY, MATTER and the FORCE of GRAVITY were redefined. XVII ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745 - 1827) Italian Physicist................................................. 143 Invented (1800) the ELECTRIC BATTERY and discovered the ELECTRIC CURRENT, which revolutionized the world of SCIENCE AND COMMUNICATION. MICHAEL FARADAY (1791 - 1867) English Physicist.................................................. 144 Discovered (early 1800’s) the PHENOMENON of ELECTROMAGNETISM, which created a new SCIENCE and a new WORLD. Invented the ELECTRIC MOTOR and the ELECTRIC GENERATOR in the 1820’s and 1830’s. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) Scottish Mathematician and Physicist ................................................................................. 144 Developed the MATHEMATICAL CHARACTERIZATION of the PROCESS of ELECTROMAGNETISM. Proposed (1860) his KINETIC THEORY of GASES, indicating that MOLECULES in GASES moved in all directions and at all velocities. JOSEPH HENRY (1797 - 1878) American Physicist ....................................................... 144 Created the ELECTROMAGNETS in the 1830’s. THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847 - 1931) American Inventor ...................................... 145 Created the ELECTRIC LIGHT (1879) & many other MAGNIFICENT INVENTIONS. EDISON POPULARIZED the use of the DIRECT ELECTRIC CURRENT as a SOURCE of ENERGY in homes and in industry.. NIKOLA TESLA (1856 -1943) American Electrical Engineer .................................... 146 Developed the modern concept of the ALTERNATING ELECTRIC CURRENT, which became more PRACTICAL than the DIRECT CURRENT proposed by EDISON. SAMUEL MORSE (1791 - 1872) American Inventor ..................................................... 146 Created (by 1840) the TELEGRAPH and the MORSE CODE as a SYSTEM of COMMUNICATION, which became popular all over the world. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847 - 1922) Scottish-American Inventor ......... 146 Invented (by 1876) the TELEPHONE, or TALKING WIRE as a SYSTEM of COMMUNICATION in HOMES and INDUSTRY.. GUGLIELMO MARCONI (1874 - 1937) Italian Electrical Engineer.....................146 Invented (1895-1900) the WIRELESS RADIO COMMUNICATION ERNST A. RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer .................................. 147 XVIII JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist .................................. 147 VLADIMIR ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist ..................... 147 These three previous scientists invented, individually, the ELECTRON MICROSCOPE, which brought to light the MAGNIFICENT SUBMICROSCOPIC WORLD. CHARLES G. BARKLA (1877 - 1944) English Physicist ............................................... 147 MAX VON LAUE (1879 - 1960) German Physicist .......................................................... 147 WILLIAM H. BRAGG (1862 - 1942) English Physicist .................................................. 147 WILLIAM L. BRAGG (1890 - 1971) English Physicist................................................... 147 HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) American Physicist .................................................. 147 These five previous scientists determined the nature of X-RAYS and created, individually, the X-RAY DIFFRACTION TECHNIQUE, which helped to characterize the structure of COMPLEX MINERALS. GYORGY HEVESY (1885 - 1966) Hungarian Chemist................................................... 148 RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898 - 1941) German-American Biochemist ......... 148 These two previous scientists developed, individually, the RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE, which facilitated many GREAT DISCOVERIES in the fields of CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY And MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. MIKHAIL TSVETT (1872 - 1919) Russian-Italian Chemist ........................................ 148 RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872 - 1942) German Chemist ....................................... 148 FRANK H. SPEDDING (1902 - 1984) American Chemist ............................................ 148 ARCHER J. MARTIN (1910 - 2002) English Biochemist .............................................. 148 RICHARD L. SYNGE (1914 - 1994) English Biochemist ............................................... 148 These five previous scientists developed CHROMATOGRAPHY as an ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE, which helped to isolate and characterize the NATURE of many complex molecules, especially the MAGNIFICENT MOLECULES of LIFE, DNA and RNA. THOMAS GRAHAM (1805 - 1869) Scottish Physical Chemist .................................. 148 FOUNDER of COLLOIDAL CHEMISTRY. Pioneered the studies on DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS and OSMOSIS as ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES, which contributed significantly to the understanding of some of the most important PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL and BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES. ALBERT CLAUDE (1898 - 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist................................ 148 XIX GEORGE E. PALADE (1912 - 2008) Canadian-American Physiologist .................. 148 CHRISTIAN De DUVE (1917 - 2013) Belgian Cytologist ............................................. 148 These three previous scientists pioneered the use of the ELECTRON MICROSCOPE in the study of the STRUCTURE & PHYSIOLOGY of the CELL. EMIL H. FISCHER (1852 - 1919) German Chemist ........................................................ 149 HANS FISCHER (1881 - 1945) German Chemist ............................................................. 149 MELVIN CALVIN (1911 - 1997) American Biochemist ................................................ 151 Characterized (1957) the entire process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS, which is one of the most FUNDAMENTAL BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES of LIFE FREDERICK G. HOPKINS (1861 - 1947) English Biochemist ................................... 151 WILLIAM C. ROSE (1887 - 1985) American Biochemist ............................................. 151 These two previous scientists developed the concepts of ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS and VITAMINS in the early 1900’s. HANS A. KREBS (1900 - 1981) German-British Biochemist...................................... 152 Characterized (1940) the KREBS’ CYCLE as one of the most significant ENERGY PRODUCING PROCESSES, in the form of ATP, within the MITOCHONDRIA of CELLS. PHOEBUS A. LEVENE (1869 - 1940) Russian-American Chemist........................... 152 First to identify the NUCLEIC ACIDS, RNA and DNA. Identified the NUCLEOTIDES as the BUILDING BLOCKS of NUCLEIC ACIDS. PETER D. MITCHELL (1920 - 1992) English Chemist .................................................. 152 Identified the MITOCHONDRIA as the ENERGY FACTORY in CELLS. Characterized the ENERGY TRANSFER MECHANISM in CELLS and the production of ATP with its HIGH ENERGY PHOSPHATE BONDS. FREDERICK SANGER (1918 - 2013) English Biochemist ........................................... 152 Determined the AMINO ACID SEQUENCE in PROTEIN MOLECULES. Determined (1977) the NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE in the DNA MOLECULE. ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905 - 2002) Austrian-American Biochemist ....................... 153 Characterized (1940’S) the four NITROGENOUS BASES in THE NUCLEIC ACIDS, which helped CRICK and WATSON in the creation of their DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE. MAURICE H. WILKINS (1916 - 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist .................. 153 XX FRANCIS H. CRICK (1916 - 2004) English Biochemist................................................. 154 JAMES D. WATSON (1928 -) American Biochemist....................................................... 154 These two previous scientists developed (1953) the MODEL of the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE, which created a NEW REVOLUTION in GENETICS and in the BIOLOGICAL WORLD, as the FUNDAMENTAL SOURCE of GENETIC INFORMATION in HEREDITY. CLOSING STATEMENTS ON THE SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS 155 SOME FOOD FOR THOUGHT ....................................................................................... 158 IS THE SPEED OF LIGHT THE ANSWER TO THE MYSTERIES OF OUR UNIVERSE? ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE.....................................................................159 THE STORY OF THE CELL AND BIOLOGY ............................ 164 THE CELL IS THE BASIC BUILDING UNIT OF LIFE BY VIRTUE OF MACROMOLECULES, CELL ORGANELLES AND PROCESSES, WHICH MAKE POSSIBLE THE EXISTENCE OF LIFE AS A SELF-SUSTAINING SUPERNATURAL AND MIRACULOUS ENTITY OF NATURE. BIOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ........................................................................... 164 BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION AND HIERARCHY OF LIFE ............. 165 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES ............................................................................ 166 THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES OF THE FUTURE .................................. 167 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY ................................... 168 ABSTRACT ON OUR BEAUTIFUL GREEN PLANET EARTH .................172 THE EARLY HISTORY OF BIOLOGY...................................................... 173 THE BIOLOGY OF ANTIQUITY ............................................................... 173 THE BIOLOGY OF THE GREEK AND ROMAN ERA ............................ 175 THE GREEK PHILOSOPHERS WERE THE FIRST TO ABANDON MYSTICISM AND TO ADOPT A NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE XXI OBSERVATION OF OUR NATURAL WORLD TO START THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION. THALES (624 - 546 BC) Greek Philosopher....................................................................... 176 PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) Greek Philosopher ......................................................... 176 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) Greek Philosopher .......................................................... 176 EMPEDOCLES (492 - 432 BC) Greek Philosopher .......................................................... 176 EUCLID (325 - 270 BC) Greek Mathematician.................................................................. 177 ARCHIMEDES (287 - 212 BC) Greek Mathematician and Engineer........................ 177 ERATOSTHENES (276 - 196 BC) Greek Astronomer .................................................... 177 HIPPOCRATES (460 - 370 BC) Greek Physician ............................................................. 178 HIPPOCRATES IS REGARDED AS THE FOUNDER OF MODERN MEDICINE. ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 BC) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist ................................ 179 THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 BC) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist .................... 180 AULUS CORNELIUS CELSUS (25 BC - 50 AD) Roman Encyclopedist..................... 180 GAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS (23 - 79) Roman Scholar.................................................. 181 GALEN (130 - 200) Greek Physician ..................................................................................... 182 Galen was the founder of modern medicine, whose writings became the basic source of medical information. THE BIOLOGY AND SCIENCES OF THE MEDIEVAL ERA ................. 182 AVICENNA (980 - 1037) Persian Physician and Biologist........................................... .183 THE BIRTH OF MODERN BIOLOGY ..................................................... .185 THE RISE OF UNIVERSITIES DURING THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE .................................................................. .185 JOHANN GUTENBERG (1398 - 1468) German Inventor ............................................. 186 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS in the 1450’s AND THE POPULARIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN OUR SOCIETY. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN HUMAN ANATOMY ................. 187 A NEW SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION ........................................................ 187 XXII HUMAN ANATOMY DURING THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ........... 188 MONDINO De LUZZI (1275 - 1326) Italian Anatomist ................................................ 188 Published (1316) the first book entirely devoted to HUMAN ANATOMY. LEONARDO Da VINCI (1452 - 1519) Italian Artist and Scientist ............................ .190 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF HUMAN ANATOMY ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514 - 1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist.........................192 ONE OF THE GREAT ANATOMISTS OF THE RENAISSANCE. PUBLISHED (1543) HIS BOOK THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN BODY GABRIELLO FALLOPIUS (1523 - 1562) Italian Anatomist ........................................ .193 REALDO COLOMBO (1510 - 1559) Italian Anatomist.................................................. .194 BARTOLOMEO EUSTACHIO (1510 - 1574) Italian Anatomist................................. .195 FABRICIUS AQUAPENDENTE (1537 - 1619) Italian Physician ............................... .195 THE CELL AS THE BASIC BUILDING UNIT OF LIFE...........196 THE CELL IS THE BASIC BUILDING UNIT OF LIFE BY VIRTUE OF MACROMOLECULES, CELL ORGANELLES AND PROCESSES, WHICH MAKE POSSIBLE THE EXISTENCE OF LIFE AS A SELF-SUSTAINING SUPERNATURAL AND MIRACULOUS ENTITY OF NATURE. THE CELL THEORY.................................................................................... 198 MATTHIAS J. SCHLEIDEN (1804 - 1881) German Botanist ...................................... 200 ONE OF THE PROPONENTS OF THE CELL THEORY IN 1838. THEODOR SCHWANN (1810 - 1882) German Physiologist ...................................... 202 ONE OF THE PROPONENTS OF THE CELL THEORY IN 1839. THE CELL THEORY AND CELL DIVISION ............................................ 203 CELL DIVISION AND THE CELL NUCLEUS........................................... 205 ROBERT BROWN (1773-1882) ..........................................................................128 WALTHER FLEMMING (1843 - 1905) German Anatomist ........................................ 207 FIRST TO DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF CELL DIVISION, MITOSIS IN 1882. EDUARD VAN BENEDEN (1846-1910)...............................................................208 XXIII CELL CLASSIFICATION, ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY .................. 209 CELL CLASSIFICATION ............................................................................. 209 CELL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY..................................................... 213 THE ORIGIN OF LIFE BY SPONTANEOUS GENERATION VS VITALISM.................................................................... 218 FRANCESCO REDI (1626 - 1699) Italian Physician ....................................................... 219 LAZZARO SPALLANZANI (1729 - 1799) Italian Microbiologist .............................. 220 DISCREDITED THE THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION IN 1765. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822 - 1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist .................... 221 DISCREDITED THE THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION IN 1860-1862. AN ABSTRACT ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR UNIVERSE AND LIFE ITSELF............................................................................................223 THE BIG BANG THEORY .......................................................................... 224 THE INCREDIBLE MYSTERY OF OUR COSMOS ................................ 226 THE ORIGIN OF LIFE AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL.............................. 228 SVANTE ARRHENIUS (1859 - 1927) Swedish Chemist ............................................... 229 Proposed (1907) the origin of life on EARTH from LIVING SPORES ORIGINATING from our OUTER SPACE. ALEXANDER I. OPARIN (1894 - 1980) Soviet Biochemist......................................... 230 STANLEY L. MILLER (1930 - 2007) American Chemist .............................................. 231 Experimented (1953) with the creation of LIFE in the LABORATORY. THE ORIGIN OF THE FIRST CELL.......................................................... 231 SIDNEY W. FOX (1912 - 1998) American Biochemist .................................................. 232 Experimented (1958) with the creation of LIFE in the LABORATORY from PROTEINOIDS, MICROSPHERES to the LIVING CELL. EMBRYOLOGY AND THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANISMS .......................................................................................... 234 XXIV THE PREFORMATION THEORY VS THE THEORY OF EPIGENESIS ................................................................ 234 THE PREFORMATION THEORY..................................................................................234 THE THEORY OF EPIGENESIS.....................................................................................235 KASPAR FRIEDRICH WOLFF (1733 - 1794) German Physiologist........................ 237 One of the FOUNDERS of the SCIENCE of EMBRYOLOGY. Introduced the THEORY of EPIGENESIS or the FORMATION of the various tissues and the EMBRYO by way of GRADUAL CELL DIFFERENTIATION. KARL ERNST VON BAER (1792 - 1876) German-Russian Embryologist ............ 239 One of the FOUNDERS of EMBRYOLOGY. Published (1828-1837) one of the first textbooks on EMBRYOLOGY. Reintroduced the THEORY of EPIGENESIS or his THEORY of GERM LAYERS. MICROSCOPY, MICROBIOLOGY AND THE FANTASTIC WORLD OF THE VERY SMALL................................................. 242 DISEASES PREDOMINANT DURING THE RENAISSANCE ERA ...... 242 SOME OF THE MOST COMMON DISEASES .............................................................243 SOME OF THE MOST DEVASTATING EPIDEMICS IN EUROPE ..........................245 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSCOPY AND MICROBIOLOGY..... 247 THE INVENTION OF THE MICROSCOPE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSCOPY ............................................... 249 THE INVENTION OF THE EARLY MICROSCOPES ............................. 250 HANS LIPPERSHEY (1570 - 1619) German-Dutch Optician ..................................... 250 ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK (1632 - 1723) Dutch Microscopist......................... 252 CONSTRUCTED THE FIRST SINGLE-LENS MICROSCOPES in 1674. ROBERT HOOKE (1635 - 1703) English Physicist ......................................................... 254 CONSTRUCTED SOME OF THE EARLY COMPOUND MICROSCOPES JOSEPH J. LISTER (1786 - 1869) English Optician......................................................... 255 CREATED THE FIRST ACHROMATIC MICROSCOPE in 1830. XXV GIOVANNI B. AMICI (1786 - 1868) Italian Physicist..................................................... 257 INVENTED THE OIL-IMMERSION MICROSCOPE in 1840. EARLY DISCOVERIES IN MICROSCOPY AND MICROBIOLOGY 257 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628 - 1694) Italian Microscopist and Physiologist... 259 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF MICROSCOPY ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK (1632 - 1723) Dutch Microscopist......................... 260 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF MICROSCOPY CONSTRUCTED THE FIRST SINGLE-LENS MICROSCOPES IN 1674. DISCOVERED THE PROTOZOA IN 1675 AND THE BACTERIA IN 1683 ROBERT HOOKE (1635 - 1703) English Physicist ......................................................... 262 CONSTRUCTED SOME OF THE EARLY COMPOUND MICROSCOPES Published (1665) his magnificent book, MICROGRAPHIA, where he reported his discovery of the PLANT CELL while looking at CORK TISSUE under his MICROSCOPE. JAN SWAMMERDAM (1637 - 1680) Dutch Naturalist ................................................. 264 The FOUNDER of ENTOMOLOGY. Discovered (1658) the RED BLOOD CELLS. NEHEMIAH GREW (1641 - 1712) English Botanist....................................................... 266 Used his microscope to study PLANTS and their ORGANS. REGNIER De GRAAF (1641 - 1673) Dutch Anatomist.................................................. 266 OTTO FRIEDRICH MULLER (1730 - 1784) Danish Biologist ................................... 267 Determined that BACTERIA had different SHAPES. JAN E. PURKINJE (1787 - 1869) Czech Physiologist ..................................................... 268 First biologist to use the word protoplasm. Introduced the microtome to prepare thin section. Offered college courses in microscopy FRIEDRICH GUSTAV HENLE (1809 - 1885) German Anatomist and Pathologist ....................................................................................... 269 FERDINAND JULIUS COHN (1828 - 1898) German Botanist .................................... 271 One of the FOUNDERS of BACTERIOLOGY. Made a systematic study of the BACTERIA. XXVI THE GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY ............................... 272 THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASES .................................................................272 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822 - 1895) French Microbiologist and Chemist .................... 274 One of the FOUNDERS of MICROBIOLOGY together with ROBERT KOCH. Proponent of the GERM THEORY of DISEASES in the 1860’s, which REVOLUTIONIZED the world of MEDICINE and MICROBIOLOGY. LOUIS PASTEUR AND THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASES .................................. 276 THE SOURING OF WINE AND BEER DURING FERMENTATION........................277 THE KILLING OF THE SILKWORMS IN FARMERS FIELDS..................................277 THE DEATH OF MOTHERS BY THE CHILDBED FEVER ....................................... 279 PASTEUR AND THE ANTHRAX DISEASE IN SHEEP..............................................279 PASTEUR AND THE RABIES DISEASE (HYDROPHOBIA) ...................................281 ILYA ILICH MECHNIKOV (1845 - 1916) Russian-French Bacteriologist............. 285 Discovered the CONCEPT of the PHAGOCYTES and proposed the WHITE BLOOD CELL THEORY of immunity in 1882. FRIEDRICH AUGUST LOFFLER (1852 - 1915) German Bacteriologist .............286 ROBERT HEINRICH KOCH (1843 - 1910) German Bacteriologist ......................... 288 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF BACTERIOLOGY. PROPONENT OF THE FOUR POSTULATES IN BACTERIOLOGY. INTRODUCED THE SOLID MEDIA TO CREATE PURE CULTURES IN 1887. DISCOVERED THE CAUSE OF SEVERAL DISEASES, INCLUDING TUBERCULOSIS, CHOLERA AND THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. THE PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE AND THE SOLID MEDIUM...........................288 THE LIFE CYCLE OF A PATHOGENIC ORGANISM..................................................289 KOCH’S FOUR POSTULATES .......................................................................................290 KOCH AND THE ANTHRAX DISEASE ........................................................................292 KOCH AND TUBERCULOSIS.........................................................................................215 PAUL EHRLICH (1854 - 1915) German Bacteriologist ................................................ 295 Created the NEW SCIENCE of CHEMOTHERAPY. Developed TECHNIQUES to STAIN MICROORGANISMS and to better OBSERVE The MICROSCOPIC WORLD. TOGETHER WITH EMIL VON BEHRING, EHRLICH DEVELOPED A SERUM XXVII AGAINST DIPTHERIA IN 1892 AND MANY CHILDREN WERE SAVED. IN 1909-1910, EHRLICH FOUND AN ARSENIC COMPOUND ( #606 or SALVARSAN) TO CONTROL SYPHILIS, WHICH SAVED MANY PEOPLE ALL OVER THE WORLD. THIS WAS A FANTASTIC ACCOMPLISHMENT IN MEDICINE (CHEMOTHERAPY). EHRLICH, VON BEHRING and DIPTHERIA in CHILDREN ..................................296 PAUL EHRLICH, SYPHILIS & CHEMOTHERAPY-THE MAGIC BULLET ...........298 EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING (1854 - 1917) German Bacteriologist ..................... 301 THE ERA OF VECTOR INSECTS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES ....... 302 THE DISCOVERY OF VECTOR INSECTS IN SPREADING DISEASES WAS A MAGNIFICENT ACCOMPLISHMENT, WHICH STARTED A NEW REVOLUTION IN THE WORLD OF MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. VECTOR INSECTS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN THE AMERICAS ..................................................................................... 303 THEOBALD SMITH (1859 - 1934) German-American Pathologist ........................ 306 First to associate a VECTOR INSECT with the SPREAD of a DISEASE in 1892. PATRICK MANSON (1844 - 1922) Scottish Physician.................................................. 306 Suggested the MOSQUITO as a VECTOR INSECT in MALARIA. CHARLES LEWIS LAVERAN (1845 - 1922) French Physician .................................. 307 Discovered in 1880 that a PROTOZOAN and not a BACTERIA was the PATHOGEN that caused MALARIA. RONALD ROSS (1857 - 1932) English Physician ............................................................ 308 Confirmed in 1897 that MALARIA was caused by a PROTOZOA transmitted by the MOSQUITO ANOPHELES. HOWARD TAILOR RICKETTS (1871 - 1910) American Pathologist .................... 310 Discovered in 1906 the RICKETTSIA GERM,( was NAMED in his HONOR) which was spread by a cattle tick and caused the disease ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER. YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA IN THE HOT AND WET TROPICS ................................................................................... 312 XXVIII YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA PROMOTED THE DEVELOPMENT OF TROPICAL MEDICINE, WHICH WAS VERY MUCH NEEDED IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. WALTER REED (1851 - 1902) American Military Surgeon & Bacteriologist..... 314 Determined in 1901 that YELLOW FEVER was caused by a VIRUS transmitted by the AEDES MOSQUITO. THE PANAMA CANAL, YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA ................. 315 WILLIAM CRAWFORD GORGAS (1854 - 1920) American Army Surgeon........317 ERADICATED, IN THE EARLY 1900’S, YELLOW FEVER & MALARIA AS WELL AS THE VECTOR INSECTS, THE AEDES & THE ANOPHELES MOSQUITOS, IN PANAMA. INSECTICIDES, VECTOR INSECTS AND AGRICULTURE.................. 318 PAUL HERMANN MULLER (1899 - 1965) Swiss Chemist .......................................... 319 In 1939 PAUL MULLER found that the CHEMICAL DDT was an Excellent INSECTICIDE and AGRICULTURE started to receive great benefits from the use of this MIRACLE PESTICIDE. RACHEL CARSON (1907-1964) Marine Biologist........................................................... 323 RACHEL CARSON AND HER MAGNIFICENT BOOK SILENT SPRING ................ 323 THE ERA OF WONDER DRUGS, SULFA DRUGS AND ANTIBIOTICS..................................................................................... 325 THE 20TH CENTURY BROUGHT WITH IT THE FANTASTIC NEW ERA OF MODERN MEDICINE, THE USE OF VACCINATION, WONDER DRUGS AND ANTIBIOTICS, AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE VIRUS WITH ALL ITS ECLECTIC PROPERTIES. GERHARD DOMAGK (1895 - 1964) German Biochemist and Bacteriologist .... 327 INTRODUCED IN 1935, PRONTOSIL, A SULFA-DRUG AGAINST THE STREPTOCOCCUS BACTERIA, WHICH BECAME A WONDER DRUG AGAINST BACTERIAL INFECTIONS AND DISEASES. DANIELE BOVET (1907 - 1992) Swiss-Italian Pharmacologist ............................... 328 DISCOVERED SULFANILAMIDE AS AN ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENT AND THE ANTIHISTAMINES XXIX THE NEW ERA OF THE TRUE ANTIBIOTICS...................................... 330 THE REAL WONDER DRUGS OF THE 20TH CENTURY ..................... 330 WITH THE ADVENT OF THE TRUE ANTIBIOTICS, THE NEW ERA OF THE TRUE WONDER DRUGS HAD FINALLY COME TO FRUITION IN THE 20TH CENTURY. THE ERA OF ANTIBIOTICS WAS INDEED A FANTASTIC BLESSING TO SOLDIERS AND TO ALL HUMANITY. ALEXANDER FLEMING (1881 - 1955) Scottish Bacteriologist................................. 332 ALEXANDER FLEMING DISCOVERED PENICILLIN (1929), WHICH BROUGHT TO HUMANITY A SENSE OF JOY AND MARVELOUS HEALTH. HOWARD WALTER FLOREY (1898 - 1968) Australian-English Pathologist .... 336 ERNST BORIS CHAIN (1906 - 1979) German-English Biochemist ......................... 337 SELMAN A. WAKSMAN (1888 - 1973) Russian-American Microbiologist.......... 339 Discovered (1943) the ANTIBIOTIC STREPTOMYCIN, against GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA, which was very effective against TUBERCULOSIS. RENE JULES DUBOS (1901 - 1982) French-American Microbiologist .................. 340 BENJAMIN MINGE DUGGAR (1872 - 1956) American Botanist.............................. 341 Discovered in 1948, AUREOMYCIN, another fantastic ANTIBIOTIC, together with PENICILLIN. VIRUSES, VIRAL DISEASES AND VIRUS VACCINES .......................... 342 THE DISCOVERY OF THE VIRUS AND ITS ECLECTIC PROPERTIES OPENED A FANTASTIC NEW CHAPTER IN THE MICROBIOLOGICAL WORLD WITH MAGNIFICENT MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS. HOW SMALL IS A VIRUS? .............................................................................................343 LIFE ATTRIBUTES OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES.............................. 344 EDWARD JENNER, LOUIS PASTEUR & THE VIRUS VACCINES ..... 346 EDWARD JENNER (1749 - 1823) English Physician ..................................................... 347 Dr. JENNER was the creator (1798) of the first VACCINE in MEDICAL HISTORY and one that was particularly meaningful because it dealt with a VIRAL DISEASE, SMALL POX, which had devastating health implications. XXX LOUIS PASTEUR AND THE RABIES VACCINE .................................... 349 LOUIS PASTEUR proposed in the 1860’s his famous GERM THEORY of DISEASES and was among the first microbiologists to make a concerted effort to develop VACCINES against various diseases in the 1880’s. CHARLES CHAMBERLAND (1851 - 1908) French Bacteriologist........................... 352 Introduced the autoclave in the laboratory. Created the porcelain filter with very fine pores that made possible the isolation of the tobacco mosaic virus by DMITRI IVANOVSKY AND MARTINUS BEIJERINCK THE TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASE AND THE DISCOVERY OF VIRUSES ...................................................... 352 DMITRI I. IVANOVSKY (1864 - 1920) Russian Botanist............................................. 353 MARTINUS WILLEM BEIJERINCK (1851 - 1931) Dutch Botanist.......................... 355 DISCOVERED (1898) THE GERM THAT CAUSED THE TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASE AND HE NAMED IT A VIRUS THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VIRUS ......................................... 357 THE INVISIBLE PATHOGENIC AGENT THAT DID NOT EVEN QUALIFIED AS A LIVING ORGANISM, BECAME PART OF THE BIOLOGICAL WORLD. WENDELL MEREDITH STANLEY (1904 - 1971) American Biochemist .............. 360 ISOLATED (1935) THE VIRUS FOR THE FIRST TIME, IN THE CRYSTALLINE FORM, FROM TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASED PLANTS FREDERICK WILLIAM TWORT (1877 - 1950) English Bacteriologist................. 362 DISCOVERED THE BACTERIOPHAGES OR BACTERIA KILLING VIRUSES FREDERICK CHARLES BAWDEN (1908 - 1972) English Plant Pathologist ....... 363 HEINZ FRAENKEL-CONRAT (1910 - 1999) German-American Biochemist. ..... 365 DEMONSTRATED THAT THE VIRUS WAS A NUCLEOPROTEIN AND SUGGESTED THAT ITS NUCLEIC ACID PORTION MAY BE THE ONE ASSOCIATED WITH THE TRANSFER OF GENETIC INFORMATION. THIS WAS INDEED A MAGNIFICENT DISCOVERY, WHICH WENT ON TO REVOLUTIONIZE THE FIELD OF GENETICS. XXXI ROBLEY COOK WILLIAMS (1908 - 1995) American Biophysicist ......................... 368 DEVELOPED THE SHADOW CASTING TECHNIQUE IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY. CULTURING THE VIRUS AND THE VIRUS VACCINES...................... 368 ERNEST WILLIAM GOODPASTURE (1886 - 1960) American Pathologist......... 383 Developed a method to grow VIRUSES in CHICK EMBRYOS and FERTILIZED CHICKEN EGGS. MAX THEILER (1899 - 1972) South African-American Virologist.......................... 374 CULTURING THE POLIO VIRUS AND THE POLIO VACCINES ........ 375 JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS (1897 - 1985) American Microbiologist...................... 378 TOGETHER WITH THOMAS WELLER & FREDERICK ROBBINS, DEVELOPED (1949) A METHOD TO GROW VIRUSES IN A TISSUE CULTURE WITH ADDED BLOOD AND ANTIBIOTICS POLIO EPIDEMICS IN THE USA AND THE POLIO VACCINE..........379 THE POLIO EPIDEMICS IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 1950’S WAS ONE OF THE WORST AND IT DEMANDED IMMEDIATE ATTENTION BY THE MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. JONAS EDWARD SALK (1914 - 1995) American Microbiologist ............................ 381 BY 1952 Dr. JONAS EDWARD SALK HAD DEVELOPED HIS POLIO VACCINE, WHICH WAS ANNOUNCED IN 1955 AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, AND NOW THE YOUNG PEOPLE OF THE WORLD COULD LOOK AT THE FUTURE WITH JOY AND HOPE. ALBERT BRUCE SABIN (1906 - 1993) Polish-American Microbiologist ............. 384 BY 1955 Dr. ALBERT BRUCE SABIN HAD DEVELOPED HIS ORAL POLIO VACCINE, WHICH WAS ALSO VERY SUCCESSFUL, AND THE CHILDREN OF THE WORLD COULD SAY AGAIN, WE ARE GRATEFUL TO THOSE MAGNIFICENT SCIENTISTS WHO GIVE THEIR LIVES TO SCIENCE WITH DEDICATION AND LOVE. THE STORY OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION ........... 387 THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION OR WHAT MAKES PLANTS GROW HAS FASCINATED SCIENTISTS SINCE THE 16TH CENTURY AND BECAME A MAGNIFICENT JOURNEY OF CHALLENGING DISCOVERIES. XXXII JAN B. VAN HELMONT (1580 - 1644) Flemish Chemist and Physiologist .......... 389 In the 1600’s, JAN VAN HELMONT conducted one of the first experiments in PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, his WILLOW TREE EXPERIMENT, which started the field of BOTANICAL EXPERIMENTATION. VAN HELMONT determined that WATER was part of the PRINCIPLE of VEGETATION. VAN HELMONT’S WILLOW TREE EXPERIMENT ................................................... 391 JOHN WOODWARD (1665 - 1728) English Scholar and Naturalist ....................... 393 Started in the late 1600’S the practice of WATER CULTURE EXPERIMENTS. JOHANN RUDOLF GLAUBER (1604 - 1670) German Chemist ................................. 395 JOHN MAYOW (1641 - 1679) English Physiologist ....................................................... 396 JETHRO TULL (1674 - 1741) English Scholar.................................................................. 397 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) English Chemist.......................................................... 399 THE FOUNDER OF ELECTROCHEMISTRY. DISCOVERED AND ISOLATED IN THE EARLY 1800’S THE PLANT NUTRIENTS POTASSIUM, SODIUM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND OTHERS ARTHUR YOUNG (1741 - 1820) English Agriculturist................................................. 402 In 1763 ARTHUR YOUNG started his SAND CULTURE EXPERIMENTS. THE NEW CHEMISTRY & THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION........ 403 THE NEW CHEMISTRY THAT WAS DEVELOPED IN THE 1700’S BY LAVOISIER, DALTON, BERZELIUS, BLACK, CAVENDISH, PRIESTLEY AND OTHERS, MADE POSSIBLE THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION. ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) French Chemist.................................................. 403 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) English Chemist ............................................................... 403 JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) Swedish Chemist .................................................... 404 JOSEPH BLACK (1728 - 1799) Scottish Chemist............................................................. 404 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731 - 1810) English Chemist and Physicist ....................... 327 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) English Chemist .................................................... 404 KARL W. SCHEELE (1742 - 1786) Swedish Chemist..................................................... 404 DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749 - 1819) Scottish Chemist............................................ 404 DMITRI I. MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) Russian Chemist............................................ 405 XXXIII THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION.............................................. 405 STEPHEN HALES (1677 - 1761) English Botanist and Chemist............................... 406 The FOUNDER of MODERN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY’ and one of the first to recognize in the 1770’s that SOMETHING in the AIR was also part of the PRINCIPLE of VEGETATION. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) English Chemist .................................................... 406 Determined that ANIMALS VITIATED the AIR during RESPIRATION. JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730 - 1799) Dutch Physician and Plant Physiologist......... 408 In 1779-1780, INGENHOUSZ determined that in the presence of LIGHT PLANTS ABSORBED CARBON DIOXIDE and RELEASED OXYGEN. He had just DISCOVERED PHOTOSYNTHESIS. JULIUS VON SACHS (1832 - 1897) German Botanist.................................................... 411 IDENTIFIED TROPISM & TRANSPIRATION IN PLANTS. DETERMINED IN 1865 THAT CHLOROPHYLL & PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURRED IN THE CHLOROPLASTS OF PLANT CELLS. THIS WAS A FUNDAMENTAL DISCOVERY IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION, PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL CHEMISTRY....................................... 412 JEAN SENEBIER (1742 - 1809) Swiss Scholar and Plant Physiologist .................. 141 ESTABLISHED THAT PHOTOSYNTHESIS WAS A REAL BIOLOGICAL PROCESS THAT TOOK PLACE IN GREEN PLANTS IN THE PRESENCE OF LIGHT, JUST AS JAN INGENHOUSZ HAD DETERMINED. THEODORE De SAUSSURE (1767 - 1845) Swiss Chemist and Plant Physiologist................................................................................... 416 INTRODUCED THE QUANTITATIVE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD IN HIS STUDIES WITH PHOTOSYNTHESIS JEAN BAPTISTE BOUSSINGAULT (1801 - 1887) French Chemist......................... 418 FOUNDER OF THE FIELD-PLOT RESEARCH METHOD IN SOIL CHEMISTRY-FERTILITY. HE ESTABLISHED IN 1836 ONE OF THE FIRST AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS IN EUROPE. XXXIV THE NEW ERA OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY ............................. 419 JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803 - 1873) German Chemist .................................................. 421 FOUNDER OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY & THE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY. ESTABLISHED ONE OF THE FIRST TEACHING LABORATORIES IN CHEMISTRY THE ROTHAMSTED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION .... 425 The ROTHAMSTED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION is one of the oldest AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS in the world, founded in 1843 by SIR JOHN BENNET LAWES. JOHN BENNET LAWES (1814 - 1900) Agricultural Scientist .................................... 427 FOUNDER OF THE ROTHAMSTED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION IN 1843. THE CONCEPT OF SOIL pH AND SOIL ACIDITY-ALKALINITY ...... 429 SOREN P. SORENSEN (1868 -1939) Danish Chemist.................................................... 429 PROPONENT OF THE CONCEPT OF pH TO REPRESENT THE ACIDITY - ALKALINITY OF SOLUTIONS ( pH = - log H+ ) THE ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS AND SOIL FERTILITY......... 429 THE MACRONUTRIENTS AND THE MICRONUTRIENTS ..................................... 429 AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES .......... 431 THE STORY OF WILLIAM HARVEY THE HEART, BLOOD & CIRCULATORY SYSTEM................ 432 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ..............................................................................432 PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM..............................................................................432 WILLIAM HARVEY (1578 - 1657) English Physician and Anatomist..................435 PROPOSED (1628) THE EXISTENCE OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM THE FOUNDER OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY JAN SWAMMERDAM (1637 - 1680) Dutch Naturalist ................................................. 438 XXXV RICHARD LOWER (1631 - 1691) English Physician ..................................................... 439 PIONEERED THE USE OF BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS IN HUMANS KARL LANDSTEINER (1868 - 1943) Austrian-American Biologist........................ 440 DISCOVERED (1900) THE VARIOUS TYPES OF HUMAN BLOOD, WHICH MADE BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS A SAFE MEDICAL PRACTICE ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION ............................................................................................ 443 THE STORY OF CARL LINNAEUS AND MODERN TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY ............................. 445 TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY IS THE SCIENCE THAT PREPARES A SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION AND NAMING OF ALL LIVING ORGANISMS FOR THE PURPOSE OF ORGANIZING & UNDERSTANDING KNOWLEDGE. THE TAXONOMIC UNITS OR LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION ...............................447 THE GREEK AND ROMAN TAXONOMY ....................................................................448 ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 B.C.) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist .............................. 448 THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 B.C.) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist .................. 449 PLINY (23 - 79) Roman Scholar .............................................................................................. 449 THE ROLE OF HERBALISTS IN EUROPEAN PLANT ANATOMY.........................450 THE EARLY TAXONOMISTS.................................................................... 450 LUCA GHINI (1490 - 1556) Italian Physician and Botanist ................................... 451 CREATED THE FIRST HERBARIUM & THE FIRST BOTANICAL GARDENS IN ITALY AND EUROPE DURING THE MID 1500’S. ANDREA CESALPINO (1519 - 1603) Italian Taxonomist............................................ 452 JEAN BAUHIN (1541 - 1631) French-Swiss Naturalist ................................................ 453 CASPAR BAUHIN (1560 - 1624) French-Swiss Naturalist ......................................... 453 JOHN RAY (1627 - 1705) British Botanist and Naturalist........................................... 454 JOSEPH P. De TOURNEFORT (1656 - 1708) French Botanist ................................. 456 XXXVI CARL LINNAEUS AND MODERN TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY............ 458 CARL LINNAEUS (1707 - 1778) Swedish Botanist and Zoologist............................ 459 THE FOUNDER OF MODERN TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY STARTED THE MODERN ORGANIZATION OF ALL LIVING ORGANISMS. LINNAEUS’ EXPEDITION TO LAPLAND....................................................................461 LINNAEUS’ ACCOMPLISHMENTS ............................................................................... 461 LINNAEUS PUBLICATIONS ..........................................................................................464 SYSTEMA NATURAE, PUBLISHED IN 1735 AND 1758........................................465 SPECIES PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1753 ......................................................... 466 FLORA LAPPONICA, PUBLISHED IN 1737 ..............................................................466 CRITICA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1735 .............................................................466 GENERA PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1735.........................................................466 FUNDAMENTA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1736 ................................................. 466 CLASSES PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1737 ........................................................466 PHILOSOPHIA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1751..................................................466 THE POST LINNAEAN TAXONOMY....................................................... 469 JEAN LAMARCK (1744 - 1829) French Naturalist ......................................................... 470 THE FOUNDER OF MODERN INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY AND TAXONOMY. ANTOINE LAURENT De JUSSIEU (1748 - 1836) French Botanist .......................... 474 CREATED A NATURAL SYSTEM OF PLANT CLASSIFICATION GEORGES L. CUVIER (1769 - 1832) French Anatomist and Naturalist ................ 476 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND PALEONTOLOGY WHO MADE A CLASSIC STUDY OF FOSSILS AUGUSTIN P. De CANDOLLE (1778 - 1841) Swiss-French Botanist..................... 481 INTRODUCED A NEW NATURAL SYSTEM OF PLANT CLASSIFICATION ROBERT BROWN (1773 - 1858) Scottish Botanist ....................................................... 485 DISCOVERED THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES IN 1827. USED THE MICROSCOPE TO RECOGNIZE THAT THE NUCLEUS WAS A PERMANENT COMPONENT OF THE CELL IN THE 1830’S. HE WAS THE FIRST TO SEPARATE HIGHER PLANTS INTO GYMNOSPERMS AND ANGIOSPERMS XXXVII RICHARD OWEN (1804 - 1892) English Anatomist and Paleontologist .............. 488 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF COMPARATIVE ANATOMY & PALEONTOLOGY. THE FIRST OF THE GREAT DINOSAUR HUNTERS. JEAN LOUIS AGASSIZ (1807 - 1873) Swiss-American Naturalist ........................... 482 HE WAS AMONG THE FIRST TO PROPOSE THE EXISTENCE OF GLACIATIONS AND ICE AGES IN EUROPE & NORTH AMERICA. THE STORY OF CHARLES DARWIN AND THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION IN BIOLOGY .............. 495 THE THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION BY CHARLES DARWIN WAS ONE OF THE MOST FANTASTIC SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES IN THE ANNALS OF SCIENCE, TOGETHER WITH COPERNICUS’ HELIOCENTRIC THEORY, NEWTON’S FORCE OF GRAVITY, FARADAY’S ELECTROMAGNETISM, EINSTEIN’S THEORY OF RELATIVITY AND QUANTUM MECHANICS. EARLY IDEAS ON EVOLUTION ............................................................... 497 (BIOLOGICAL, GEOLOGIC AND COSMIC) EMPEDOCLES (490 - 430 B.C.) Greek Philosopher ........................................................ 497 EPICURUS (341 - 270 B.C.) Greek Philosopher................................................................ 497 THOMAS AQUINAS (1225 - 1274) Italian Philosopher and Theologian .............. 498 BELIEVED IN CREATIONISM BUT ACCEPTED THE AUTONOMY OF NATURE TO CHANGE LIVING ORGANISMS ACCORDING TO A DIVINE DESIGN. ALFRED WEGENER (1880 - 1930) German Geologist ................................................ 500 PROPOSED (1900’S) THE ORIGIN OF OUR CONTINENTS BY MEANS OF PLATE TECTONICS OR CONTINENTAL DRIFT. PIERRE S. La PLACE (1749 - 1827) French Mathematician and Astronomer ... 501 PROPOSED A THEORY ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM PRE-DARWIN IDEAS ON BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION........................ 501 JEAN BAPTISTE LAMARCK (1744 - 1829) French Naturalist.................................. 503 ONE OF THE FIRST TAXONOMISTS TO DEVELOP (1809) A SYSTEM OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION. XXXVIII GEORGES L. BUFFON (1707 - 1788) French Naturalist .............................................. 506 BELIEVED IN AN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS WHERE NATURE WAS THE PRODUCT OF A GRAND DESIGN. THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS (1766 - 1834) English Economist........................... 508 PUBLISHED IN 1798 HIS BOOK, “ESSAY ON POPULATION” COMPARING HUMAN POPULATION, FOOD PRODUCTION AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS. LORENZ OKEN (1779 - 1851) German Naturalist.......................................................... 510 CHARLES LYELL (1797 - 1875) Scottish Geologist........................................................ 512 ONE OF THE FIRST SCIENTISTS TO SUPPORT DARWIN’S EVOLUTION. THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY (1825 - 1895) English Biologist ..................................... 515 ONE OF THE FIRST BIOLOGISTS TO ACCEPT AND POPULARIZE DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION ASA GRAY (1810 - 1888) American Botanist ................................................................... 518 SUPPORTED DARWINISM IN AMERICA BUT BELIEVED THAT NATURAL SELECTION WAS NOT A RANDOM FORCE BUT ONE GUIDED BY GOD. HERBERT SPENCER (1820 - 1903) English Sociologist .............................................. 519 HE APPLIED DARWINISM TO THE HUMAN POPULATION AND POPULARIZED THE EXPRESSION, “ THE SURVIVAL OF “THE FITTEST”. ERNST H. HAECKEL (1834 - 1919) German Naturalist ............................................... 521 RONALD A. FISHER (1890 - 1962) English Biologist ................................................... 521 ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE (1823 - 1913) English Naturalist................................ 532 PUBLISHED (1860’S) HIS IDEAS ON THE TRANSMUTATION of SPECIES by NATURAL SELECTION, WHICH WERE VERY SIMILAR TO DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION. ERASMUS DARWIN (1731 - 1802) English Physician and Naturalist ................... 527 THE GRANDFATHER OF CHARLES DARWIN. WROTE HIS BOOK “ZOONOMIA” WHERE HE PROPOSED THE IDEA OF AN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS IN NATURE. XXXIX CHARLES DARWIN AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION .................................................. 529 CHARLES R. DARWIN (1809 - 1882) English Naturalist and Geologist ............... 529 PUBLISHED (1859) THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, A THEORY OF EVOLUTION THAT REVOLUTIONIZED THE SCIENCES OF GENETICS AND BIOLOGY DARWIN’S FAMOUS VOYAGE ON THE BEAGLE TO SOUTH AMERICA...........531 DARWIN’S RETURN TO ENGLAND FROM HIS FAMOUS VOYAGE .................... 535 PREPARATIONS FOR DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION...............................536 SOME OF DARWIN’S INITIAL IDEAS ON EVOLUTION .........................................538 THE PUBLICATION OF DARWIN’S GREAT BOOK ON EVOLUTION..................539 EVALUATION OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION ....................................................................... 545 AN ABSTRACT ON THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION.................................547 THREE FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL LAWS DERIVED AND DEDUCED FROM DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION............................................ 547 THE EVOLUTIONARY TRINITY ....................................................................................... 549 EVOLUTIONISM VS CREATIONISM ............................................................................. 550 A GREAT DILEMMA IN OUR BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND HISTORY .............. 550 THE STORY OF GREGOR MENDEL, GENETICS AND THE LAWS OF HEREDITY .......................... 552 GREGOR MENDEL IS REGARDED AS THE FOUNDER OF THE SCIENCE OF GENETICS. IN THE MID 1800’S HE PROPOSED HIS LAWS OF HEREDITY, WHICH REVOLUTIONIZED THE WORLD OF GENETICS AND BIOLOGY. SOME EARLY IDEAS ON GENETICS AND HYBRIDIZATION ........... 553 GENETICS & HYBRIDIZATION DURING THE 18TH CENTURY ....... 554 RUDOLF J. CAMERARIUS (1665 - 1721) German Botanist and Physician.......... 556 FIRST TO RECOGNIZE (1694) THAT PLANT HAD SEX ORGANS XL EARLY STUDIES ON HYBRIDIZATION DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY ...................................... 557 JOSEPH G. KOLREUTER (1733 - 1806) German Botanist and Naturalist ........... 559 CONDUCTED SOME OF THE EARLY OUTSTANDING STUDIES ON HYBRIDIZATION WITH TOBACCO PLANTS IN THE 1760’S. KARL FRIEDRICH VON GAERTNER (1772 - 1850) German Botanist .................. 562 CONDUCTED SOME OF THE EARLY OUTSTANDING STUDIES ON HYBRIDIZATION WITH TOBACCO PLANTS IN THE 1820’S. CHARLES VICTOR NAUDIN (1815 - 1899) French Botanist and Naturalist ...... 565 FRANCIS GALTON (1822 - 1911) English Anthropologist ......................................... 566 GALTON WAS AMONG THE FIRST TO APPLY STATISTICS TO GENETIC STUDIES IN THE 1880’S AND WAS A RELATIVE OF CHARLES DARWIN. THE ERA OF GREGOR MENDEL’S GENETICS - 19TH CENTURY ..... 570 GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (1822 - 1884) Austrian Monk and Botanist ........... 570 GREGOR MENDEL WAS REGARDED AS THE FOUNDER OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF GENETICS. MENDEL PUBLISHED (1865 and 1869) HIS LAWS OF HEREDITY, which Revolutionized the world of GENETICS and BIOLOGY. RESULTS FROM MENDEL’S BREEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH PEA PLANTS 572 GENETICS AFTER GREGOR MENDEL ................................................... 576 KARL WILHELM VON NAGELI (1817 - 1891) Swiss Botanist.................................. 577 HUGO MARIE De VRIES (1848 - 1935) Dutch Botanist and Geneticist ................ 580 THE BRILLIANT GENETICIST WHO REDISCOVERED GREGOR MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE IN THE 1890’S. PROPONENT OF THE CONCEPT OF THE GENES (1889) AND THE THEORY OF MUTATIONS (1886) THE CONCEPT OF THE GENES....................................................................................580 REDISCOVERY OF GREGOR MENDEL’S PAPERS IN THE LATE 1890’S...........581 THE MUTATION THEORY ............................................................................................ 582 KARL ERICH CORRENS (1864 - 1933) German Botanist and Geneticist............. 853 ERICH VON TSCHERMAK (1871 - 1962) Austrian Botanist and Agronomist ... 584 XLI WILLIAM JASPER SPILLMAN (1863 - 1931) American Agronomist .................... 586 FOUNDER OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC. THE FIRST AMERICAN AGRONOMIST TO REDISCOVER MENDEL’S LAWS OF HEREDITY. THE PLANT BREEDER WHO DEVELOPED THE WINTER-WHEAT VARIETIES FOR WASHINGTON STATE IN THE 1890’S. WILHELM L. JOHANNSEN (1857 - 1927) Danish Botanist and Geneticist.......... 590 PROPOSED (1909) THE WORD GENE TO NAME MENDEL’S FACTORS OF HEREDITY. FIRST TO USE THE WORDS GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE WALTER S. SUTTON (1877 - 1916) American Geneticist and Physician ............ 593 INDICATED (1902 and 1903) THAT ALL CHROMOSOMES EXISTED IN PAIRS AND THAT CHROMOSOMES CARRIED THE GENES OR FACTORS OF HEREDITY. ALSO THAT SEX CELLS CONTRIBUTED ONLY ONE OF THE CHROMOSOMES IN EACH PAIR WILLIAM BATESON (1861 - 1926) English Geneticist and Biologist.................... 596 FIRST TO USE THE WORD GENETICS TO DESCRIBE THE STUDY OF HEREDITY. PROPOSED (1894) THE CONCEPT OF GENE-LINKAGE, WHICH WAS LATER CONFIRMED BY THOMAS MORGAN. TRANSLATED AND POPULARIZED MENDEL’ LAWS OF HEREDITY. THOMAS HUNT MORGAN (1866 - 1945) American Geneticist, Embryologist and Evolutionary Biologist ........................................................................... 599 CHARACTERIZED THE ROLE OF CHROMOSOMES AND GENES IN THE PROCESS OF HEREDITY. REESTABLISHED THE CHROMOSOME - GENE THEORY PROPOSED BY WALTER SUTTON. CONFIRMED THE MUTATION THEORY PROPOSED BY De VRIES. PUBLISHED (1903) HIS BOOK, EVOLUTION AND ADAPTATION, SUPPORTING THE CONCEPT OF THE EVOLUTION OF SPECIES. SUPPORTED MENDEL’S LAWS OF HEREDITY AND THE CONCEPT OF GENE- LINKAGE PROPOSED BY WILLIAM BATESON.. HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER (1890 - 1967) American Geneticist ......................... 605 ALBERT F. BLAKESLEE (1874 - 1954) American Botanist and Geneticist ......... 607 FRANCIS HARRY CRICK (1916-2004) English Geneticist....................................608 JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928- ) American Geneticist.................................... 608 FRANCIS CRICK and JAMES WATSON CREATED in 1953 their MODEL of the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE, which REVOLUTIONIZED the WORLD of GENETICS and BIOLOGY. XLII THE MODERN GENETICS OF THE 20TH CENTURY ........................... 614 THE GREEN REVOLUTION ...................................................................... 616 DR. NORMAN BORLAUG (1914 - 2009) American Geneticist & Agriculturist .. 617 THE FOUNDER OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION THE STORY OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION IN THE 20TH CENTURY ............................................................................. 617 ABSTRACT ON THE FUNDAMENTAL EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE ..............................................................621 UNIVERSITIES IN THE USA, EUROPE AND LATIN AMERICA........656 ABOUT THE AUTHOR............................................................................... 682 PUBLICATIONS WRITTEN BY THE AUTHOR .................................... 684 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE.............................................................. 700

 

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